:: The Definition of Finite Sequences and Matrices of Probability, and
:: Addition of Matrices of Real Elements
:: by Bo Zhang and Yatsuka Nakamura
::
:: Received August 18, 2006
:: Copyright (c) 2006-2017 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies NUMBERS, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, NAT_1, REAL_1, FINSEQ_1, RELAT_1,
FUNCT_1, TARSKI, XREAL_0, FINSEQ_2, CARD_1, XXREAL_0, SEQ_1, ARYTM_3,
CARD_3, MATRIX_1, TREES_1, ZFMISC_1, INCSP_1, MATRIXC1, QC_LANG1,
ORDINAL4, PRE_POLY, BINOP_2, FINSEQ_3, RVSUM_1, STRUCT_0, VECTSP_1,
SUPINF_2, FVSUM_1, MATRIXR1, MATRPROB, FUNCT_7, MATRIX_0, ASYMPT_1,
XCMPLX_0, VALUED_0;
notations TARSKI, SUBSET_1, XBOOLE_0, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, XCMPLX_0, REAL_1,
ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, SEQ_1, ZFMISC_1, FUNCOP_1, BINOP_1,
BINOP_2, FUNCT_2, NAT_1,
VALUED_0, RVSUM_1, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, FINSEQOP, NEWTON,
STRUCT_0, MATRLIN, MATRIXR1, MATRIX_3, MATRIX_0, GROUP_1, FVSUM_1,
RLVECT_1, VECTSP_1;
constructors REAL_1, BINOP_2, NEWTON, FVSUM_1, MATRIX_3, MATRLIN, MATRIXR1,
BINOP_1, RVSUM_1, RELSET_1, FINSEQ_2, FINSEQ_4, SEQ_1;
registrations XBOOLE_0, ORDINAL1, RELSET_1, NUMBERS, XXREAL_0, NAT_1,
MEMBERED, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, STRUCT_0, VECTSP_1, MATRIX_0, MATRLIN,
VALUED_0, CARD_1, RVSUM_1, XREAL_0;
requirements REAL, NUMERALS, BOOLE, SUBSET, ARITHM;
definitions TARSKI;
equalities FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, RVSUM_1;
expansions TARSKI, FINSEQ_1;
theorems FUNCT_1, SEQ_1, NAT_1, TARSKI, ZFMISC_1, MATRIX_3, XREAL_1, BINOP_2,
FVSUM_1, VECTSP_1, RLVECT_1, MATRLIN, XBOOLE_0, FINSEQ_1, PROB_3,
MATRIX_0, FINSEQ_2, FUNCOP_1, RFINSEQ, FINSEQ_3, RVSUM_1, MATRIXR1,
ORDINAL1, XREAL_0, MATRIXC1, XXREAL_0, STRUCT_0, PRE_POLY, CARD_1;
schemes CLASSES1, FINSEQ_2, PARTFUN1, NAT_1, MATRIX_0;
begin
reserve D for non empty set,
i,j,k for Nat,
n,m for Nat,
r for Real,
e for real-valued FinSequence;
definition
let d be set, g be FinSequence of d*, n be Nat;
redefine func g.n -> FinSequence of d;
correctness
proof
per cases;
suppose
A1: n in dom g;
A2: rng g c= d* by FINSEQ_1:def 4;
g.n in rng g by A1,FUNCT_1:3;
then g.n is Element of d* by A2;
hence thesis;
end;
suppose
not n in dom g;
then g.n = <*>d by FUNCT_1:def 2;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
end;
definition
let x be Real;
redefine func <*x*> -> FinSequence of REAL;
coherence
proof
rng <*x*> c= REAL;
hence thesis by FINSEQ_1:def 4;
end;
end;
theorem Th1:
for a being Element of D, m being non zero Nat, g being
FinSequence of D holds (len g = m & for i be Nat st i in dom g holds g.i = a)
iff g = m |-> a
proof
let a be Element of D, m be non zero Nat, g be FinSequence of D;
hereby
assume that
A1: len g = m and
A2: for i be Nat st i in dom g holds g.i = a;
dom g = dom(m |-> a) & for i be Nat st i in dom g holds g.i = (m |-> a ).i
proof
thus dom g = Seg m by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= dom(m |-> a) by FUNCOP_1:13;
let i be Nat such that
A3: i in dom g;
A4: i in Seg m by A1,A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
thus g.i = a by A2,A3
.= (m |-> a).i by A4,FINSEQ_2:57;
end;
hence g = m |-> a by FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
assume
A5: g = m |-> a;
then dom g = Seg m by FUNCOP_1:13;
hence thesis by A5,CARD_1:def 7,FINSEQ_2:57;
end;
theorem Th2:
for a,b being Element of D holds ex g be FinSequence of D st len
g = n & for i be Nat st i in Seg n holds (i in Seg k implies g.i = a) & (not i
in Seg k implies g.i = b)
proof
let a,b be Element of D;
defpred c[object] means $1 in Seg k;
deffunc f(object) = a;
deffunc g(object) = b;
:: (Seg n --> b) +* (Seg k --> a) !!! ??? obcieta do Seg n ?
ex f being Function st dom f = Seg n &
for x being object st x in Seg n
holds (c[x] implies f.x=f(x)) & (not c[x] implies f.x=g(x)) from PARTFUN1:sch 1
;
then consider f being Function such that
A1: dom f = Seg n and
A2: for x being object st x in Seg n holds (x in Seg k implies f.x=a) & (
not x in Seg k implies f.x=b);
reconsider p = f as FinSequence by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 2;
rng p c= D
proof
let y be object;
assume y in rng p;
then consider j be object such that
A3: j in dom p and
A4: y = p.j by FUNCT_1:def 3;
A5: not j in Seg k implies p.j=b by A1,A2,A3;
j in Seg k implies p.j=a by A1,A2,A3;
hence thesis by A4,A5;
end;
then reconsider p as FinSequence of D by FINSEQ_1:def 4;
take p;
n in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
hence thesis by A1,A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
end;
theorem Th3:
(for i be Nat st i in dom e holds 0 <= e.i) implies for f being
Real_Sequence st (for n be Nat st 0 <> n & n < len e holds f.(n+1) = f.n+e.(n+1
)) holds for n,m be Nat st n in dom e & m in dom e & n <= m holds f.n <= f.m
proof
assume
A1: for i be Nat st i in dom e holds 0 <= e.i;
let f being Real_Sequence such that
A2: for n be Nat st 0 <> n & n < len e holds f.(n+1) = f.n+e.(n+1);
A3: for n st n <> 0 & n < len e holds f.n <= f.(n+1)
proof
let n such that
A4: n <> 0 and
A5: n < len e;
n+1 >=1 & n+1 <= len e by A5,NAT_1:13,14;
then n+1 in dom e by FINSEQ_3:25;
then f.n + e.(n+1) >= f.n by A1,XREAL_1:31;
hence thesis by A2,A4,A5;
end;
for n be Nat st n in dom e holds for m holds m in dom e & n <=m implies
f.n <= f.m
proof
let n be Nat;
assume n in dom e;
then
A6: n >= 1 by FINSEQ_3:25;
defpred p[Nat] means $1 in dom e & n <= $1 implies f.$1 >= f.n;
A7: now
let k such that
A8: p[k];
now
assume that
A9: k + 1 in dom e and
A10: n <= k + 1;
A11: k + 1 <= len e by A9,FINSEQ_3:25;
per cases by A10,A11,NAT_1:8,13;
suppose
k + 1 = n & k < len e;
hence f.(k+1) >= f.n;
end;
suppose
A12: k >= n & k < len e;
then k >= 1 & f.(k+1) >= f.k by A3,A6,NAT_1:14;
hence f.(k+1) >= f.n by A8,A12,FINSEQ_3:25,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
end;
hence p[k+1];
end;
A13: p[0];
for n be Nat holds p[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A13,A7);
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th4:
len e >= 1 & (for i be Nat st i in dom e holds 0 <= e.i) implies
for f being Real_Sequence st f.1 = e.1 & (for n be Nat st 0 <> n & n < len e
holds f.(n+1) = f.n+e.(n+1)) holds for n be Nat st n in dom e holds e.n <= f.n
proof
assume that
A1: len e >= 1 and
A2: for i be Nat st i in dom e holds 0 <= e.i;
let f being Real_Sequence such that
A3: f.1 = e.1 and
A4: for n be Nat st 0 <> n & n < len e holds f.(n+1) = f.n+e.(n+1);
defpred p[Nat] means $1 in dom e implies e.$1 <= f.$1;
A5: now
let k be Nat such that
p[k];
now
assume k + 1 in dom e;
then
A6: k + 1 <= len e by FINSEQ_3:25;
per cases by A6,NAT_1:13;
suppose
k = 0 & k < len e;
hence e.(k+1) <= f.(k+1) by A3;
end;
suppose
A7: k > 0 & k < len e;
then 1 <= len e by NAT_1:14;
then
A8: 1 in dom e by FINSEQ_3:25;
A9: 1 in dom e by A1,FINSEQ_3:25;
A10: k >=1 by A7,NAT_1:14;
then k in dom e by A7,FINSEQ_3:25;
then e.1 <= f.k by A2,A3,A4,A10,A8,Th3;
then f.k >= 0 by A2,A9;
then f.k + e.(k+1) >= e.(k+1) by XREAL_1:31;
hence e.(k+1) <= f.(k+1) by A4,A7;
end;
end;
hence p[k+1];
end;
A11: p[0] by FINSEQ_3:25;
for n holds p[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A11,A5);
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th5:
(for i be Nat st i in dom e holds 0 <= e.i) implies for k be Nat
st k in dom e holds e.k <= Sum e
proof
assume
A1: for i be Nat st i in dom e holds 0 <= e.i;
per cases;
suppose
len e = 0;
then e = {};
hence thesis;
end;
suppose
A2: len e <> 0;
then len e >= 1 by NAT_1:14;
then
A3: len e in dom e by FINSEQ_3:25;
let n be Nat;
assume
A4: n in dom e;
reconsider n as Nat;
e is FinSequence of REAL by RVSUM_1:145;
then consider f be Real_Sequence such that
A5: f.1 = e.1 and
A6: for n be Nat st 0 <> n & n < len e holds f.(n+1) = f.n+e.(n+1) and
A7: Sum e = f.len e by A2,NAT_1:14,PROB_3:63;
A8: e.n <= f.n by A1,A2,A5,A6,A4,Th4,NAT_1:14;
n <= len e by A4,FINSEQ_3:25;
then f.n <= f.len e by A1,A6,A4,A3,Th3;
hence thesis by A7,A8,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
end;
theorem Th6:
for r1,r2 being Real, k being Nat, seq1 being Real_Sequence holds
ex seq being Real_Sequence st seq.0=r1 & for n holds (n<>0 & n <= k implies seq
.n=seq1.n) & (n > k implies seq.n=r2)
proof
let r1,r2 be Real, k be Nat, seq1 be Real_Sequence;
ex seq being Real_Sequence st for n holds (n=0 implies seq.n=r1) & (n<>0
& n <= k implies seq.n=seq1.n) & (n<>0 & n > k implies seq.n=r2)
proof
defpred P[object,object] means ex n be Nat st (n=$1 & (n = 0 implies
$2=r1) & (n <> 0 & n <= k implies $2=seq1.n) & (n <> 0 & n > k implies $2=r2));
A1: for x being object st x in NAT ex y being object st P[x,y]
proof
let x be object;
assume x in NAT;
then reconsider n=x as Nat;
now
per cases;
case
n=0;
hence P[x,r1];
end;
case
n <> 0 & n <= k;
hence P[x,seq1.n];
end;
case
n <> 0 & not n <= k;
hence P[x,r2];
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
consider f1 being Function such that
A2: dom f1=NAT & for x being object st x in NAT holds P[x,f1.x] from
CLASSES1:sch 1(A1);
now
let x be object;
assume x in NAT;
then
ex n be Nat st n=x & (n = 0 implies f1.x=r1) & (n <> 0 &
n <= k implies f1.x=seq1.n) & (n <> 0 & n > k implies f1.x=r2) by A2;
hence f1.x is real;
end;
then reconsider f1 as Real_Sequence by A2,SEQ_1:1;
take seq=f1;
let n be Nat;
reconsider n as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
ex k1 being Nat st k1=n & (k1=0 implies seq.n=r1) & (k1<>0
& k1 <= k implies seq.n=seq1.k1) & (k1<>0 & k1 > k implies seq.n=r2) by A2;
hence thesis;
end;
then consider seq being Real_Sequence such that
A3: for n holds (n=0 implies seq.n=r1) & (n<>0 & n <= k implies seq.n=
seq1.n) & (n<>0 & n > k implies seq.n=r2);
take seq;
thus thesis by A3;
end;
theorem Th7:
for F being FinSequence of REAL
ex f being Real_Sequence st f.0 = 0 &
(for i be Nat st i < len F holds f.(i+1) = f.i+(F.(i+1))) & Sum F = f.len F
proof
let F be FinSequence of REAL;
per cases;
suppose
A1: len F = 0;
set f = seq_const 0;
A2: for i be Nat st i < len F holds f.(i+1) = f.i+(F.(i+1)) by A1;
A3: for i be Nat holds f.i = 0 by SEQ_1:57;
then
A4: f.0 = 0;
Sum(F) = 0 by A1,PROB_3:62
.= f.(len F) by A3;
hence thesis by A2,A4;
end;
suppose
A5: len F > 0;
then consider f being Real_Sequence such that
A6: f.1 = F.1 and
A7: for i be Nat st 0 <> i & i < len F holds f.(i+1) = f.i + F.(i+1) and
A8: Sum F = f.len F by NAT_1:14,PROB_3:63;
consider f1 being Real_Sequence such that
A9: for n holds f1.0=0 & (n<>0 & n <= len F implies f1.n=f.n) & (n >
len F implies f1.n=0) by Th6;
A10: len F >= 1 by A5,NAT_1:14;
A11: for i be Nat st i < len F holds f1.(i+1) = f1.i+F.(i+1)
proof
let i be Nat such that
A12: i < len F;
set r = F.(i+1);
per cases;
suppose
i = 0;
hence thesis by A10,A6,A9;
end;
suppose
A13: i <> 0;
i + 1 <= len F by A12,NAT_1:13;
hence f1.(i+1) = f.(i+1) by A9
.= f.i + F.(i+1) by A7,A12,A13
.= f1.i + r by A9,A12,A13;
end;
end;
Sum(F) = f1.len F by A5,A8,A9;
hence thesis by A9,A11;
end;
end;
theorem Th8:
for D being set, e1 being FinSequence of D holds n |-> e1 is
FinSequence of D*
proof
let D be set, e1 be FinSequence of D;
e1 in D* by FINSEQ_1:def 11;
hence thesis by FINSEQ_2:63;
end;
theorem Th9:
for D being set, e1,e2 being FinSequence of D holds ex e being
FinSequence of D* st len e = n & for i be Nat st i in Seg n holds (i in Seg k
implies e.i = e1) & (not i in Seg k implies e.i = e2)
proof
let D be set, e1,e2 be FinSequence of D;
e1 in D* & e2 in D* by FINSEQ_1:def 11;
hence thesis by Th2;
end;
theorem Th10:
for D being set, s being FinSequence holds (s is Matrix of D iff
ex n st for i st i in dom s holds ex p being FinSequence of D st s.i = p & len
p = n)
proof
let D be set, s be FinSequence;
thus s is Matrix of D implies ex n st for i st i in dom s holds ex p being
FinSequence of D st s.i = p & len p = n
proof
assume
A1: s is Matrix of D;
then reconsider v=s as FinSequence of D*;
consider n be Nat such that
A2: for x being object st x in rng v ex t being FinSequence st t=x & len
t = n by A1,MATRIX_0:def 1;
A3: for i st i in dom v holds ex p being FinSequence of D st v.i = p & len
p = n
proof
let i;
assume i in dom v;
then consider t being FinSequence such that
A4: t=v.i & len t=n by A2,FUNCT_1:3;
take t;
thus thesis by A4;
end;
reconsider n as Nat;
take n;
thus thesis by A3;
end;
given n such that
A5: for i st i in dom s holds ex p being FinSequence of D st s.i = p &
len p = n;
A6: for x being set st x in rng s holds (ex v being FinSequence st v=x & len
v = n) & x in D*
proof
let x be set;
assume x in rng s;
then consider i be object such that
A7: i in dom s and
A8: x = s.i by FUNCT_1:def 3;
A9: ex p being FinSequence of D st s.i = p & len p = n by A5,A7;
hence ex v being FinSequence st v=x & len v = n by A8;
thus thesis by A8,A9,FINSEQ_1:def 11;
end;
then for x being object st x in rng s holds x in D*;
then
A10: rng s c= D*;
for x being object st x in rng s holds ex v being FinSequence st v=x & len
v = n by A6;
hence thesis by A10,FINSEQ_1:def 4,MATRIX_0:def 1;
end;
theorem Th11:
for D being set, e being FinSequence of D* holds (ex n st for i
st i in dom e holds len(e.i) = n) iff e is Matrix of D
proof
let D be set, e be FinSequence of D*;
hereby
given n such that
A1: for i st i in dom e holds len(e.i) = n;
for i st i in dom e holds ex p being FinSequence of D st e.i = p & len
p = n
proof
let i;
assume i in dom e;
then len (e.i) = n by A1;
hence thesis;
end;
hence e is Matrix of D by Th10;
end;
assume e is Matrix of D;
then consider n such that
A2: for i st i in dom e holds ex p being FinSequence of D st e.i = p &
len p = n by Th10;
for i st i in dom e holds len(e.i) = n
proof
let i;
assume i in dom e;
then ex p being FinSequence of D st e.i = p & len p = n by A2;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th12:
for M being tabular FinSequence holds [i,j] in Indices M iff i
in Seg len M & j in Seg width M
proof
let M be tabular FinSequence;
hereby
assume [i,j] in Indices M;
then
A1: [i,j] in [:dom M,Seg width M:] by MATRIX_0:def 4;
then i in dom M by ZFMISC_1:87;
hence i in Seg len M & j in Seg width M by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3,ZFMISC_1:87;
end;
assume that
A2: i in Seg len M and
A3: j in Seg width M;
i in dom M by A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then [i,j] in [:dom M,Seg width M:] by A3,ZFMISC_1:87;
hence thesis by MATRIX_0:def 4;
end;
theorem Th13:
for D being non empty set, M being Matrix of D holds [i,j] in
Indices M iff i in dom M & j in dom (M.i)
proof
let D be non empty set, M be Matrix of D;
hereby
assume
A1: [i,j] in Indices M;
then
A2: j in Seg width M by Th12;
A3: i in Seg len M by A1,Th12;
then i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then j in Seg len(M.i) by A2,MATRIX_0:36;
hence i in dom M & j in dom (M.i) by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
end;
assume i in dom M & j in dom (M.i);
hence thesis by MATRIX_0:37;
end;
theorem Th14:
for D being non empty set, M being Matrix of D st [i,j] in
Indices M holds M*(i,j)=(M.i).j
proof
let D be non empty set, M be Matrix of D;
assume [i,j] in Indices M;
then ex p being FinSequence of D st p=M.i & M*(i,j)=p.j by MATRIX_0:def 5;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th15:
for D being non empty set, M being Matrix of D holds [i,j] in
Indices M iff i in dom Col(M,j) & j in dom Line(M,i)
proof
let D be non empty set, M be Matrix of D;
hereby
assume
A1: [i,j] in Indices M;
then
A2: i in dom M by Th13;
then i in Seg len M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in Seg len Col(M,j) by MATRIX_0:def 8;
hence i in dom Col(M,j) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
j in dom (M.i) by A1,Th13;
hence j in dom Line(M,i) by A2,MATRIX_0:60;
end;
assume that
A3: i in dom Col(M,j) and
A4: j in dom Line(M,i);
i in Seg len Col(M,j) by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in Seg len M by MATRIX_0:def 8;
then
A5: i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then j in dom (M.i) by A4,MATRIX_0:60;
hence thesis by A5,Th13;
end;
theorem Th16:
for D1,D2 being non empty set, M1 being (Matrix of D1),M2 being
Matrix of D2 st M1 = M2 holds for i st i in dom M1 holds Line(M1,i) = Line(M2,i
)
proof
let D1,D2 be non empty set, M1 be (Matrix of D1), M2 be Matrix of D2 such
that
A1: M1 = M2;
hereby
let i;
assume
A2: i in dom M1;
then Line(M1,i) = M1.i by MATRIX_0:60;
hence Line(M1,i) = Line(M2,i) by A1,A2,MATRIX_0:60;
end;
end;
theorem Th17:
for D1,D2 being non empty set,M1 being (Matrix of D1),M2 being
Matrix of D2 st M1 = M2 holds for j st j in Seg width M1 holds Col(M1,j) = Col(
M2,j)
proof
let D1,D2 be non empty set, M1 be (Matrix of D1), M2 be Matrix of D2 such
that
A1: M1 = M2;
hereby
let j such that
A2: j in Seg width M1;
A3: for k be Nat st k in dom Col(M1,j) holds (Col(M1,j)).k = (Col(M2,j)).k
proof
let k be Nat;
assume k in dom Col(M1,j);
then k in Seg len Col(M1,j) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A4: k in Seg len M1 by MATRIX_0:def 8;
then
A5: [k,j] in Indices M1 by A2,Th12;
A6: k in dom M1 by A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence (Col(M1,j)).k = M1*(k,j) by MATRIX_0:def 8
.= M2*(k,j) by A1,A5,MATRIXR1:23
.= (Col(M2,j)).k by A1,A6,MATRIX_0:def 8;
end;
dom Col(M1,j) = Seg len Col(M1,j) by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= Seg len M1 by MATRIX_0:def 8
.= Seg len Col(M2,j) by A1,MATRIX_0:def 8
.= dom Col(M2,j) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence Col(M1,j) = Col(M2,j) by A3,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
end;
theorem Th18:
for e1 being FinSequence of D st len e1 = m holds n |-> e1 is Matrix of n,m,D
proof
let e1 be FinSequence of D such that
A1: len e1 = m;
reconsider e = n |-> e1 as FinSequence of D* by Th8;
A2: len e = n by CARD_1:def 7;
A3: for i st i in dom e holds len(e.i) = m
proof
let i;
assume i in dom e;
then i in Seg n by A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A1,FUNCOP_1:7;
end;
then reconsider e as Matrix of D by Th11;
for p being FinSequence of D st p in rng e holds len p = m
proof
let p be FinSequence of D;
assume p in rng e;
then ex i be object st i in dom e & p = e.i by FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
hence thesis by A2,MATRIX_0:def 2;
end;
theorem Th19:
for e1,e2 being FinSequence of D st len e1 = m & len e2 = m
holds ex M being Matrix of n,m,D st for i be Nat st i in Seg n holds (i in Seg
k implies M.i = e1) & (not i in Seg k implies M.i = e2)
proof
let e1,e2 be FinSequence of D such that
A1: len e1 = m & len e2 = m;
consider e being FinSequence of D* such that
A2: len e = n and
A3: for i be Nat st i in Seg n holds (i in Seg k implies e.i = e1) & (
not i in Seg k implies e.i = e2) by Th9;
A4: for i st i in dom e holds len(e.i) = m
proof
let i;
assume i in dom e;
then i in Seg n by A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A1,A3;
end;
then reconsider e as Matrix of D by Th11;
for p being FinSequence of D st p in rng e holds len p = m
proof
let p be FinSequence of D;
assume p in rng e;
then ex i be object st i in dom e & p = e.i by FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
then e is Matrix of n,m,D by A2,MATRIX_0:def 2;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
Lm1: for m being Matrix of REAL holds (for i,j st [i,j] in Indices m holds m*(
i,j) >= r) iff for i,j st i in dom m & j in dom(m.i) holds (m.i).j >= r
proof
let m be Matrix of REAL;
hereby
assume
A1: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices m holds m*(i,j) >=r;
hereby
let i,j;
assume i in dom m & j in dom(m.i);
then
A2: [i,j] in Indices m by Th13;
then m*(i,j) >=r by A1;
hence (m.i).j >= r by A2,Th14;
end;
end;
assume
A3: for i,j st i in dom m & j in dom(m.i) holds (m.i).j >= r;
hereby
let i,j such that
A4: [i,j] in Indices m;
i in dom m & j in dom(m.i) by A4,Th13;
then (m.i).j >=r by A3;
hence m*(i,j) >= r by A4,Th14;
end;
end;
Lm2: for m being Matrix of REAL holds (for i,j st [i,j] in Indices m holds m*(
i,j) >=r) iff for i,j st i in dom m & j in dom Line(m,i) holds Line(m,i).j >=r
proof
let m be Matrix of REAL;
hereby
assume
A1: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices m holds m*(i,j) >=r;
hereby
let i,j such that
A2: i in dom m and
A3: j in dom(Line(m,i));
m.i = Line(m,i) by A2,MATRIX_0:60;
hence Line(m,i).j >=r by A1,A2,A3,Lm1;
end;
end;
assume
A4: for i,j st i in dom m & j in dom(Line(m,i)) holds Line(m,i).j >=r;
now
let i such that
A5: i in dom m;
m.i = Line(m,i) by A5,MATRIX_0:60;
hence for j st j in dom(m.i) holds (m.i).j >= r by A4,A5;
end;
then for i,j st i in dom m & j in dom(m.i) holds (m.i).j >= r;
hence thesis by Lm1;
end;
Lm3: for m being Matrix of REAL holds (for i,j st [i,j] in Indices m holds m*(
i,j) >=r) iff for i,j st j in Seg width m & i in dom Col(m,j) holds Col(m,j).i
>=r
proof
let m be Matrix of REAL;
hereby
assume
A1: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices m holds m*(i,j) >=r;
hereby
let i,j such that
A2: j in Seg width m and
A3: i in dom Col(m,j);
j in Seg len Line(m,i) by A2,MATRIX_0:def 7;
then
A4: j in dom Line(m,i) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then [i,j] in Indices m by A3,Th15;
then
A5: i in dom m by Th13;
then Line(m,i).j >=r by A1,A4,Lm2;
hence Col(m,j).i >=r by A2,A5,MATRIX_0:42;
end;
end;
assume
A6: for i,j st j in Seg width m & i in dom Col(m,j) holds Col(m,j).i >= r;
for i,j st i in dom m & j in dom Line(m,i) holds Line(m,i).j >=r
proof
let i,j such that
A7: i in dom m and
A8: j in dom Line(m,i);
j in Seg len Line(m,i) by A8,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A9: j in Seg width m by MATRIX_0:def 7;
i in Seg len m by A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in Seg len Col(m,j) by MATRIX_0:def 8;
then i in dom Col(m,j) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then Col(m,j).i >=r by A6,A9;
hence thesis by A7,A9,MATRIX_0:42;
end;
hence thesis by Lm2;
end;
definition
let e be FinSequence of REAL*;
func Sum e -> FinSequence of REAL means
:Def1:
len it = len e & for k st k in dom it holds it.k = Sum(e.k);
existence
proof
deffunc f(Nat) = In(Sum(e.$1),REAL);
consider e1 being FinSequence of REAL such that
A1: len e1 = len e & for k be Nat st k in dom e1 holds e1.k = f(k)
from FINSEQ_2:sch 1;
take e1;
thus len e1 = len e by A1;
let k;
assume k in dom e1;
then e1.k = f(k) by A1;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let e1,e2 being FinSequence of REAL such that
A2: len e1 = len e and
A3: for k st k in dom e1 holds e1.k = Sum(e.k) and
A4: len e2 = len e and
A5: for k st k in dom e2 holds e2.k = Sum(e.k);
dom e1 = dom e2 & for k be Nat st k in dom e1 holds e1.k = e2.k
proof
thus
A6: dom e1 = Seg len e by A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= dom e2 by A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
let k be Nat such that
A7: k in dom e1;
thus e1.k = Sum(e.k) by A3,A7
.= e2.k by A5,A6,A7;
end;
hence thesis by FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
end;
notation
let m be Matrix of REAL;
synonym LineSum m for Sum m;
end;
theorem Th20:
for m being Matrix of REAL holds len Sum m = len m & for i st i
in Seg len m holds (Sum m).i=Sum Line(m,i)
proof
let m be Matrix of REAL;
thus len Sum m = len m by Def1;
thus for k st k in Seg len m holds (Sum m).k=Sum Line(m,k)
proof
let k such that
A1: k in Seg len m;
A2: k in dom m by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
k in Seg len Sum m by A1,Def1;
then k in dom Sum m by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence (Sum m).k = Sum(m.k) by Def1
.= Sum(Line(m,k)) by A2,MATRIX_0:60;
end;
end;
definition
let m be Matrix of REAL;
func ColSum m -> FinSequence of REAL means
:Def2:
len it = width m & for j be Nat st j in Seg width m holds it.j=Sum Col(m,j);
existence
proof
deffunc f(Nat) = In(Sum Col(m,$1),REAL);
consider e being FinSequence of REAL such that
A1: len e = width m & for k be Nat st k in dom e holds e.k = f(k) from
FINSEQ_2:sch 1;
take e;
thus len e = width m by A1;
let k be Nat such that
A2: k in Seg width m;
dom e = Seg width m by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then e.k = f(k) by A2,A1;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let p1,p2 being FinSequence of REAL such that
A3: len p1 = width m and
A4: for i be Nat st i in Seg width m holds p1.i = Sum Col(m,i) and
A5: len p2 = width m and
A6: for i be Nat st i in Seg width m holds p2.i = Sum Col(m,i);
A7: dom p1 = Seg width m by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
for j be Nat st j in dom p1 holds p1.j=p2.j
proof
let j be Nat;
assume
A8: j in dom p1;
then p1.j = Sum Col(m,j) by A4,A7;
hence thesis by A6,A7,A8;
end;
hence thesis by A3,A5,FINSEQ_2:9;
end;
end;
theorem
for M be Matrix of REAL st width M > 0 holds LineSum M = ColSum(M@)
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL;
assume width M > 0;
then
A1: len M = width (M@) by MATRIX_0:54;
A2: len LineSum M = len M by Th20;
A3: len ColSum (M@) = width (M@) by Def2;
A4: now
let i be Nat;
assume that
A5: 1 <= i and
A6: i <= len ColSum (M@);
i <= len LineSum M by A2,A1,A6,Def2;
then i in Seg len LineSum M by A5;
then
A7: i in Seg len M by Th20;
then
A8: i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
i in Seg width (M@) by A3,A5,A6;
hence (ColSum (M@)).i = Sum Col((M@),i) by Def2
.= Sum (Line(M,i)) by A8,MATRIX_0:58
.= (LineSum M).i by A7,Th20;
end;
len ColSum (M@)=len LineSum M by A2,A1,Def2;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
theorem Th22:
for M be Matrix of REAL holds ColSum M = LineSum(M@)
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL;
A1: len ColSum M=width M by Def2;
A2: len (LineSum(M@))=len (M@) by Th20;
A3: now
let i be Nat;
assume that
A4: 1 <= i and
A5: i <= len ColSum M;
i <= len LineSum(M@) by A2,A1,A5,MATRIX_0:def 6;
then i in Seg len LineSum(M@) by A4;
then
A6: i in Seg len (M@) by Th20;
A7: i in Seg width M by A1,A4,A5;
hence (ColSum M).i = Sum Col(M,i) by Def2
.= Sum (Line(M@,i)) by A7,MATRIX_0:59
.= (LineSum(M@)).i by A6,Th20;
end;
len ColSum M=len LineSum(M@) by A2,A1,MATRIX_0:def 6;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
definition
let M be Matrix of REAL;
func SumAll M -> Real equals
Sum Sum M;
coherence;
end;
theorem Th23:
for M be Matrix of REAL st len M = 0 holds SumAll M = 0
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL;
assume len M = 0;
then len Sum M = 0 by Def1;
then Sum M = <*>REAL;
hence thesis by RVSUM_1:72;
end;
Lm4: 0 in REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
theorem Th24:
for M be Matrix of m,0,REAL holds SumAll M = 0
proof
let M be Matrix of m,0,REAL;
per cases;
suppose
m = 0;
then len M = 0 by MATRIX_0:def 2;
hence thesis by Th23;
end;
suppose
A1: m > 0;
len Sum M > 0 & for k be Nat st k in dom Sum M holds (Sum M).k = 0
proof
len M > 0 by A1,MATRIX_0:def 2;
hence len Sum M > 0 by Def1;
len M = len Sum M by Def1;
then
A2: dom M = dom Sum M by FINSEQ_3:29;
hereby
let k be Nat such that
A3: k in dom Sum M;
M.k in rng M by A2,A3,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then len (M.k) = 0 by MATRIX_0:def 2;
then
A4: M.k = <*>REAL;
thus (Sum M).k = Sum (M.k) by A3,Def1
.= 0 by A4,RVSUM_1:72;
end;
end;
hence SumAll M = Sum ((len Sum M) |-> 0) by Th1,Lm4
.= (len Sum M) * 0 by RVSUM_1:80
.= 0;
end;
end;
theorem Th25:
for M1 be Matrix of n,k,REAL for M2 being Matrix of m,k,REAL
holds Sum (M1^M2) = (Sum M1)^(Sum M2)
proof
let M1 be Matrix of n,k,REAL;
let M2 be Matrix of m,k,REAL;
A1: dom Sum(M1^M2) = Seg len Sum(M1^M2) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A2: now
let i be Nat;
assume
A3: i in dom Sum(M1^M2);
then i in Seg len (M1^M2) by A1,Def1;
then
A4: i in dom (M1^M2) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
now
per cases by A4,FINSEQ_1:25;
suppose
A5: i in dom M1;
len M1 = len Sum M1 by Def1;
then
A6: dom M1 = dom Sum M1 by FINSEQ_3:29;
thus Sum(M1^M2).i = Sum ((M1^M2).i) by A3,Def1
.= Sum (M1.i) by A5,FINSEQ_1:def 7
.= (Sum M1).i by A5,A6,Def1
.= ((Sum M1)^(Sum M2)).i by A5,A6,FINSEQ_1:def 7;
end;
suppose
A7: ex n be Nat st n in dom M2 & i = len M1 + n;
A8: len M1 = len Sum M1 by Def1;
len M2 = len Sum M2 by Def1;
then
A9: dom M2 = dom Sum M2 by FINSEQ_3:29;
consider n be Nat such that
A10: n in dom M2 and
A11: i = len M1 + n by A7;
thus Sum(M1^M2).i = Sum ((M1^M2).i) by A3,Def1
.= Sum (M2.n) by A10,A11,FINSEQ_1:def 7
.= (Sum M2).n by A10,A9,Def1
.= ((Sum M1)^(Sum M2)).i by A10,A11,A8,A9,FINSEQ_1:def 7;
end;
end;
hence Sum(M1^M2).i = ((Sum M1)^(Sum M2)).i;
end;
len Sum(M1^M2) = len (M1^M2) by Def1
.= len M1 + len M2 by FINSEQ_1:22
.= len Sum M1 + len M2 by Def1
.= len Sum M1 + len Sum M2 by Def1
.= len ((Sum M1)^(Sum M2)) by FINSEQ_1:22;
hence thesis by A2,FINSEQ_2:9;
end;
theorem Th26:
for M1,M2 be Matrix of REAL holds Sum M1 + Sum M2 = Sum (M1 ^^ M2)
proof
let M1,M2 be Matrix of REAL;
reconsider M = min(len M1,len M2) as Nat;
A1: Seg M = Seg len M1 /\ Seg len M2 by FINSEQ_2:2
.= Seg len M1 /\ dom M2 by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= dom M1 /\ dom M2 by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= dom (M1 ^^ M2) by PRE_POLY:def 4
.= Seg len (M1 ^^ M2) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A2: len (Sum M1 + Sum M2) = len (addreal.:(Sum M1,Sum M2))
.= min(len Sum M1,len Sum M2) by FINSEQ_2:71
.= min(len M1,len Sum M2) by Def1
.= min(len M1,len M2) by Def1
.= len (M1 ^^ M2) by A1,FINSEQ_1:6
.= len Sum(M1 ^^ M2) by Def1;
A3: dom (Sum M1 + Sum M2) = Seg len (Sum M1 + Sum M2) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
now
let i be Nat;
assume
A4: i in dom (Sum M1 + Sum M2);
then
A5: i in dom (addreal.:(Sum M1, Sum M2));
i in Seg len (M1 ^^ M2) by A2,A3,A4,Def1;
then
A6: i in dom (M1 ^^ M2) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A7: i in dom M1 /\ dom M2 by PRE_POLY:def 4;
then i in dom M1 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then i in Seg len M1 by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in Seg len Sum M1 by Def1;
then
A8: i in dom Sum M1 by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
i in dom M2 by A7,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then i in Seg len M2 by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in Seg len Sum M2 by Def1;
then
A9: i in dom Sum M2 by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A10: i in dom Sum(M1 ^^ M2) by A2,A3,A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A11: ((M1.i) ^ (M2.i)) = (M1 ^^ M2).i by A6,PRE_POLY:def 4;
thus (Sum M1 + Sum M2).i = (addreal.:(Sum M1,Sum M2)).i
.= (addreal).((Sum M1).i,(Sum M2).i) by A5,FUNCOP_1:22
.= ((Sum M1).i) + ((Sum M2).i) by BINOP_2:def 9
.= Sum (M1.i) + (Sum M2.i) by A8,Def1
.= Sum (M1.i) + Sum (M2.i) by A9,Def1
.= Sum ((M1 ^^ M2).i) by A11,RVSUM_1:75
.= (Sum(M1 ^^ M2)).i by A10,Def1;
end;
hence thesis by A2,FINSEQ_2:9;
end;
theorem Th27:
for M1,M2 be Matrix of REAL st len M1 = len M2 holds SumAll M1 +
SumAll M2 = SumAll(M1 ^^ M2)
proof
let M1,M2 be Matrix of REAL such that
A1: len M1 = len M2;
len Sum M1 = len M1 by Def1
.= len Sum M2 by A1,Def1;
then reconsider
p1=Sum M1, p2 = Sum M2 as Element of (len Sum M1)-tuples_on REAL
by FINSEQ_2:92;
thus SumAll M1 + SumAll M2 = Sum (p1 + p2) by RVSUM_1:89
.= SumAll(M1 ^^ M2) by Th26;
end;
theorem Th28:
for M be Matrix of REAL holds SumAll M = SumAll(M@)
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL;
defpred x[Nat] means for M be Matrix of REAL st len M = $1 holds SumAll M =
SumAll (M@);
A1: for p be FinSequence of REAL holds SumAll <*p*> = SumAll(<*p*>@)
proof
defpred x[FinSequence of REAL] means SumAll <*$1*> = SumAll(<*$1*>@);
let p be FinSequence of REAL;
A2: for p being FinSequence of REAL, x being Element of REAL st x[p] holds
x[p^<*x*>]
proof
let p be FinSequence of REAL, x be Element of REAL such that
A3: SumAll <*p*> = SumAll (<*p*>@);
Seg len (<*p*> ^^ <*<*x*>*>) = dom (<*p*> ^^ <*<*x*>*>) by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= dom <*p*> /\ dom <*<*x*>*> by PRE_POLY:def 4
.= Seg 1 /\ dom <*<*x*>*> by FINSEQ_1:38
.= Seg 1 /\ Seg 1 by FINSEQ_1:38
.= Seg 1;
then
A4: len (<*p*> ^^ <*<*x*>*>) = 1 by FINSEQ_1:6
.= len <*p^<*x*>*> by FINSEQ_1:39;
A5: dom <*p^<*x*>*> = Seg len <*p^<*x*>*> by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A6: now
let i be Nat;
reconsider M1 = <*p*>.i,M2 = <*<*x*>*>.i as FinSequence;
assume
A7: i in dom <*p^<*x*>*>;
then i in { 1 } by A5,FINSEQ_1:2,40;
then
A8: i = 1 by TARSKI:def 1;
i in dom (<*p*> ^^ <*<*x*>*>) by A4,A5,A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence (<*p*> ^^ <*<*x*>*>).i = M1 ^ M2 by PRE_POLY:def 4
.= p ^ M2 by A8,FINSEQ_1:40
.= p ^ <*x*> by A8,FINSEQ_1:40
.= <*p^<*x*>*>.i by A8,FINSEQ_1:40;
end;
per cases;
suppose
len p = 0;
then
A9: p = {};
hence SumAll <*p^<*x*>*> = SumAll <*<*x*>*> by FINSEQ_1:34
.= SumAll (<*<*x*>*>@) by MATRLIN:15
.= SumAll (<*p^<*x*>*>@) by A9,FINSEQ_1:34;
end;
suppose
A10: len p <> 0;
A11: len <*<*x*>*> = 1 by FINSEQ_1:40;
then
A12: width <*<*x*>*> = len <*x*> by MATRIX_0:20
.= 1 by FINSEQ_1:40;
then
A13: len (<*<*x*>*>@) = 1 by MATRIX_0:def 6;
A14: len <*p*> = 1 by FINSEQ_1:40;
then
A15: width <*p*> = len p by MATRIX_0:20;
then
A16: len (<*p*>@) = len p by MATRIX_0:def 6;
width (<*p*>@) = 1 by A10,A14,A15,MATRIX_0:54;
then reconsider d1 = <*p*>@ as Matrix of len p,1,REAL by A10,A16,
MATRIX_0:20;
len <*p^<*x*>*> = 1 by FINSEQ_1:40;
then
A17: width <*p^<*x*>*> = len (p^<*x*>) by MATRIX_0:20
.= len p + len <*x*> by FINSEQ_1:22
.= len p + 1 by FINSEQ_1:40;
A18: (<*<*x*>*>@)@ = <*<*x*>*> by A11,A12,MATRIX_0:57;
A19: width (<*p*>@) = len <*p*> by A10,A15,MATRIX_0:54
.= width (<*<*x*>*>@) by A14,A11,A12,MATRIX_0:54;
then width (<*<*x*>*>@) = 1 by A10,A14,A15,MATRIX_0:54;
then reconsider d2 = <*<*x*>*>@ as Matrix of 1,1,REAL by A13,
MATRIX_0:20;
A20: (d1 ^ d2)@ = ((<*p*>@)@) ^^ ((<*<*x*>*>@)@) by A19,MATRLIN:28
.= <*p*> ^^ <*<*x*>*> by A10,A14,A15,A18,MATRIX_0:57
.= <*p^<*x*>*> by A4,A6,FINSEQ_2:9
.= (<*p^<*x*>*>@)@ by A17,MATRIX_0:57;
A21: len ((<*p*>@) ^ (<*<*x*>*>@)) = len (<*p*>@) + len (<*<*x*>*>@)
by FINSEQ_1:22
.= width <*p*> + len (<*<*x*>*>@) by MATRIX_0:def 6
.= width <*p*> + width <*<*x*>*> by MATRIX_0:def 6
.= len (<*p^<*x*>*>@) by A15,A12,A17,MATRIX_0:def 6;
thus SumAll <*p^<*x*>*> = SumAll (<*p*> ^^ <*<*x*>*>) by A4,A6,
FINSEQ_2:9
.= SumAll (<*p*>@) + SumAll <*<*x*>*> by A3,A14,A11,Th27
.= SumAll (<*p*>@) + SumAll (<*<*x*>*>@) by MATRLIN:15
.= Sum (Sum d1 ^ Sum d2) by RVSUM_1:75
.= SumAll (d1 ^ d2) by Th25
.= SumAll (<*p^<*x*>*>@) by A21,A20,MATRIX_0:53;
end;
end;
A22: x[<*>(REAL)]
proof
set M1 =<*<*>(REAL)*>;
reconsider E = <*>REAL as Element of REAL* by FINSEQ_1:def 11;
set M1 =<*E*>;
reconsider M1 as Matrix of REAL by MATRIX_0:3;
A23: len M1 = 1 by FINSEQ_1:39;
for p being FinSequence of REAL st p in rng M1 holds len p = 0
proof let p be FinSequence of REAL such that
A24: p in rng M1;
rng M1 = {<*>(REAL)} by FINSEQ_1:38;
then p = <*>(REAL) by A24,TARSKI:def 1;
hence len p = 0;
end;
then M1 is (1,0)-size by A23,MATRIX_0:def 2;
then reconsider M1 as Matrix of 1,0,REAL;
A25: width M1 = 0 by MATRIX_0:20,A23;
A26: len (M1@) = 0 by MATRIX_0:def 6,A25;
SumAll M1 = 0 by Th24
.= SumAll (M1@) by A26,Th23;
hence thesis;
end;
for p be FinSequence of REAL holds x[p] from FINSEQ_2:sch 2(A22,A2 );
hence thesis;
end;
A27: for n st x[n] holds x[n+1]
proof
let n such that
A28: for M be Matrix of REAL st len M = n holds SumAll M = SumAll (M@);
thus for M be Matrix of REAL st len M = n+1 holds SumAll M = SumAll (M@)
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL such that
A29: len M = n+1;
A30: dom M = Seg len M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
per cases;
suppose
A31: n = 0;
reconsider g = M.1 as FinSequence of REAL;
M = <*g*> by A29,A31,FINSEQ_1:40;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
suppose
A32: n > 0;
reconsider M9 = M as Matrix of n+1,width M,REAL by A29,MATRIX_0:20;
reconsider M1 = M.(n+1) as FinSequence of REAL;
reconsider w = Del(M9,n+1) as Matrix of n,width M,REAL by MATRLIN:3;
M.(n+1) = Line(M,n+1) by A29,A30,FINSEQ_1:4,MATRIX_0:60;
then len M1 = width M by MATRIX_0:def 7;
then reconsider r = <*M1*> as Matrix of 1,width M,REAL;
A33: width w = width M9 by A32,MATRLIN:2
.= width r by MATRLIN:2;
A34: len (w@) = width w by MATRIX_0:def 6
.= len (r@) by A33,MATRIX_0:def 6;
A35: len (Del(M,n+1)) = n by A29,PRE_POLY:12;
thus SumAll M = SumAll (w ^ r) by A29,PRE_POLY:13
.= Sum (Sum w ^ Sum r) by Th25
.= SumAll (Del(M,n+1)) + SumAll r by RVSUM_1:75
.= SumAll (Del(M,n+1)@) + SumAll r by A28,A35
.= SumAll (Del(M,n+1)@) + SumAll (r@) by A1
.= SumAll ((w@) ^^ (r@)) by A34,Th27
.= SumAll ((w ^ r)@) by A33,MATRLIN:28
.= SumAll (M@) by A29,PRE_POLY:13;
end;
end;
end;
A36: x[0]
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL;
assume
A37: len M = 0;
then width M = 0 by MATRIX_0:def 3;
then
A38: len (M@) = 0 by MATRIX_0:def 6;
thus SumAll M = 0 by A37,Th23
.= SumAll (M@) by A38,Th23;
end;
for n holds x[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A36,A27);
then x[len M];
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th29:
for M be Matrix of REAL holds SumAll M = Sum ColSum M
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL;
thus Sum ColSum M = SumAll (M@) by Th22
.= SumAll M by Th28;
end;
theorem Th30:
for x,y being FinSequence of REAL st len x = len y holds
len mlt (x,y) = len x by FINSEQ_2:72;
theorem Th31:
for i for R being Element of i-tuples_on REAL holds mlt(i|->1,R) = R
proof
let i;
let R be Element of i-tuples_on REAL;
thus mlt(i|->1,R) = 1*R by RVSUM_1:63
.= R by RVSUM_1:52;
end;
theorem Th32:
for x being FinSequence of REAL holds mlt((len x|->1),x) = x
proof
let x be FinSequence of REAL;
reconsider y=x as Element of (len x)-tuples_on REAL by FINSEQ_2:92;
mlt(len x|->1,y) = y by Th31;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th33:
for x,y being FinSequence of REAL st (for i st i in dom x holds
x.i >= 0) & (for i st i in dom y holds y.i >= 0) holds for k st k in dom mlt(x,
y) holds (mlt(x,y)).k >= 0
proof
A1: for z being FinSequence of REAL st (for i st i in dom z holds z.i >= 0)
holds for i holds z.i >=0
proof
let z be FinSequence of REAL such that
A2: for i st i in dom z holds z.i >=0;
hereby
let i;
per cases;
suppose
not i in dom z;
hence z.i >= 0 by FUNCT_1:def 2;
end;
suppose
i in dom z;
hence z.i >=0 by A2;
end;
end;
end;
let x,y be FinSequence of REAL such that
A3: ( for i st i in dom x holds x.i >= 0)& for i st i in dom y holds y.i >= 0;
hereby
let k;
assume k in dom mlt(x,y);
A4: (mlt(x,y)).k = x.k * y.k by RVSUM_1:59;
x.k >=0 & y.k >=0 by A3,A1;
hence (mlt(x,y)).k >= 0 by A4;
end;
end;
theorem Th34:
for i for e1,e2 being Element of i-tuples_on REAL for f1,f2
being Element of i-tuples_on the carrier of F_Real st e1 = f1 & e2 = f2 holds
mlt(e1,e2) = mlt(f1,f2)
proof
let i;
let e1,e2 be Element of i-tuples_on REAL;
let f1,f2 be Element of i-tuples_on the carrier of F_Real such that
A1: e1 = f1 & e2 = f2;
A2: dom (mlt(e1,e2)) = Seg len (mlt(e1,e2)) by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= Seg i by CARD_1:def 7
.= Seg len mlt(f1,f2) by CARD_1:def 7
.= dom mlt(f1,f2) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
for i be Nat st i in dom(mlt(e1,e2)) holds (mlt(e1,e2)).i = (mlt(f1,f2)) . i
proof
let i be Nat such that
A3: i in dom mlt(e1,e2);
e1.i in REAL & e2.i in REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
then reconsider a1 = e1.i, a2 = e2.i as Element of F_Real
by VECTSP_1:def 5;
thus (mlt(e1,e2)).i = a1 * a2 by RVSUM_1:59
.= (mlt(f1,f2)).i by A1,A2,A3,FVSUM_1:60;
end;
hence thesis by A2,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
theorem Th35:
for e1,e2 being FinSequence of REAL for f1,f2 being FinSequence
of F_Real st len e1 = len e2 & e1 = f1 & e2 = f2 holds mlt(e1,e2) = mlt(f1,f2)
proof
let e1,e2 being FinSequence of REAL;
let f1,f2 being FinSequence of F_Real such that
A1: len e1 = len e2 and
A2: e1 = f1 and
A3: e2 = f2;
set l = len e1;
set Z = { f where f is Element of (the carrier of F_Real)*: len f = l};
f1 is Element of (the carrier of F_Real)* by FINSEQ_1:def 11;
then f1 in Z by A2;
then reconsider f3=f1 as Element of l-tuples_on the carrier of F_Real;
f2 is Element of (the carrier of F_Real)* by FINSEQ_1:def 11;
then f2 in Z by A1,A3;
then reconsider f4=f2 as Element of l-tuples_on the carrier of F_Real;
set Y = { e where e is Element of REAL*: len e = l};
e2 is Element of REAL* by FINSEQ_1:def 11;
then e2 in Y by A1;
then reconsider e4=e2 as Element of l-tuples_on REAL;
reconsider e3=e1 as Element of l-tuples_on REAL by FINSEQ_2:92;
mlt(e3,e4) = mlt(f3,f4) by A2,A3,Th34;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th36:
for e being FinSequence of REAL for f being FinSequence of
F_Real st e = f holds Sum e = Sum f
proof
let e be FinSequence of REAL;
let f be FinSequence of F_Real such that
A1: e = f;
consider e1 being sequence of REAL such that
A2: e1.0 = 0 and
A3: for i be Nat st i < len e holds e1.(i+1) = e1.i+e.(i+1) and
A4: Sum e = e1.len e by Th7;
consider f1 being sequence of the carrier of F_Real such that
A5: Sum f = f1.len f and
A6: f1.0 = 0.F_Real and
A7: for j being Nat
for v being Element of F_Real st j < len f & v = f.(j + 1)
holds f1.(j + 1) = f1.j + v by RLVECT_1:def 12;
for n holds n <= len e implies e1.n = f1.n
proof
defpred p[Nat] means $1 <= len e implies e1.$1 = f1.$1;
let n;
A8: now
let k be Nat such that
A9: p[k];
now
reconsider k9=k as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
e.(k+1) in REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
then reconsider a = e.(k+1) as Element of F_Real by VECTSP_1:def 5;
assume k+1 <= len e;
then
A10: k < len e by NAT_1:13;
then e1.(k+1) = f1.k9 + a by A3,A9
.= f1.(k+1) by A1,A7,A10;
hence e1.(k+1) = f1.(k+1);
end;
hence p[k+1];
end;
A11: p[0] by A2,A6,STRUCT_0:def 6,VECTSP_1:def 5;
for n be Nat holds p[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A11,A8);
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by A1,A4,A5;
end;
notation
let e1,e2 be FinSequence of REAL;
synonym e1 "*" e2 for |( e1,e2 )|;
end;
theorem
for i for e1,e2 being Element of i-tuples_on REAL for f1,f2 being
Element of i-tuples_on the carrier of F_Real st e1 = f1 & e2 = f2 holds e1 "*"
e2 = f1 "*" f2
proof
let i;
let e1,e2 be Element of i-tuples_on REAL;
let f1,f2 be Element of i-tuples_on the carrier of F_Real;
assume e1 = f1 & e2 = f2;
hence e1 "*" e2 = Sum mlt(f1,f2) by Th34,Th36
.= f1 "*" f2 by FVSUM_1:def 9;
end;
theorem Th38:
for e1,e2 being FinSequence of REAL for f1,f2 being FinSequence
of F_Real st len e1 = len e2 & e1 = f1 & e2 = f2 holds e1 "*" e2 = f1 "*" f2
proof
let e1,e2 be FinSequence of REAL;
let f1,f2 be FinSequence of F_Real;
assume len e1 = len e2 & e1 = f1 & e2 = f2;
hence e1 "*" e2 = Sum mlt(f1,f2) by Th35,Th36
.= f1 "*" f2 by FVSUM_1:def 9;
end;
theorem Th39:
for M,M1,M2 being Matrix of REAL st width M1 = len M2 holds M =
M1*M2 iff len M = len M1 & width M = width M2 & for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M
holds M*(i,j) = Line(M1,i) "*" Col(M2,j)
proof
let M,M1,M2 be Matrix of REAL such that
A1: width M1 = len M2;
set MM = MXR2MXF M;
set M4 = MXR2MXF M2;
set M3 = MXR2MXF M1;
A2: M3 = M1 by MATRIXR1:def 1;
A3: M4 = M2 by MATRIXR1:def 1;
MXF2MXR(M3 * M4) = M1 * M2 by MATRIXR1:def 6;
then
A4: M3 * M4 = M1 * M2 by MATRIXR1:def 2;
hereby
assume
A5: M = M1 * M2;
hence
A6: len M = len M1 by A1,A2,A3,A4,MATRIX_3:def 4;
thus
A7: width M = width M2 by A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,MATRIX_3:def 4;
thus for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) = Line(M1,i) "*" Col(M2,j
)
proof
let i,j such that
A8: [i,j] in Indices M;
j in Seg width M2 by A7,A8,Th12;
then
A9: Col(M4,j) = Col(M2,j) by A3,Th17;
i in Seg len M1 by A6,A8,Th12;
then i in dom M1 by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A10: Line(M3,i) = Line(M1,i) by A2,Th16;
A11: len(Line(M1,i)) = width M1 by MATRIX_0:def 7
.= len(Col(M2,j)) by A1,MATRIX_0:def 8;
M = MXF2MXR (M3 * M4) by A5,MATRIXR1:def 6;
then [i,j] in Indices (M3 * M4) & M*(i,j) = (M3 * M4)*(i,j) by A8,
MATRIXR1:23,def 2;
hence M*(i,j) = Line(M3,i) "*" Col(M4,j) by A1,A2,A3,MATRIX_3:def 4
.= Line(M1,i) "*" Col(M2,j) by A10,A9,A11,Th38;
end;
end;
assume that
A12: len M = len M1 and
A13: width M = width M2 and
A14: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) = Line(M1,i) "*" Col(M2 ,j);
A15: width MM = width M by MATRIXR1:def 1
.= width M4 by A13,MATRIXR1:def 1;
A16: len MM = len M by MATRIXR1:def 1
.= len M3 by A12,MATRIXR1:def 1;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices MM holds MM*(i,j)= Line(M3,i) "*"
Col(M4,j)
proof
let i,j be Nat such that
A17: [i,j] in Indices MM;
j in Seg width M4 by A15,A17,Th12;
then
A18: Col(M4,j) = Col(M2,j) by Th17,MATRIXR1:def 1;
i in Seg len M3 by A16,A17,Th12;
then i in dom M3 by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A19: Line(M3,i) = Line(M1,i) by Th16,MATRIXR1:def 1;
A20: len(Line(M1,i)) = width M1 by MATRIX_0:def 7
.= len(Col(M2,j)) by A1,MATRIX_0:def 8;
[i,j] in Indices M & MM*(i,j)= M*(i,j) by A17,MATRIXR1:23,def 1;
hence MM*(i,j)= Line(M1,i) "*" Col(M2,j) by A14
.= Line(M3,i) "*" Col(M4,j) by A19,A18,A20,Th38;
end;
then MM = M & MM = M3 * M4 by A1,A2,A3,A16,A15,MATRIXR1:def 1,MATRIX_3:def 4;
then M = MXF2MXR(M3 * M4) by MATRIXR1:def 2;
hence thesis by MATRIXR1:def 6;
end;
theorem Th40:
for M being Matrix of REAL for p being FinSequence of REAL st
len M = len p holds for i st i in Seg len (p*M) holds (p*M).i = p "*" Col(M,i)
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL;
let p be FinSequence of REAL such that
A1: len M = len p;
A2: len (p*M) = len Line((LineVec2Mx p)*M,1) by MATRIXR1:def 12
.= width ((LineVec2Mx p)*M) by MATRIX_0:def 7;
hereby
let i such that
A3: i in Seg len (p*M);
A4: width (LineVec2Mx p) = len M by A1,MATRIXR1:def 10;
then len ((LineVec2Mx p)*M) = len (LineVec2Mx p) by Th39;
then len ((LineVec2Mx p)*M) = 1 by MATRIXR1:48;
then 1 in Seg len ((LineVec2Mx p)*M);
then [1,i] in Indices ((LineVec2Mx p)*M) by A2,A3,Th12;
then
A5: ((LineVec2Mx p)*M)*(1,i) = Line((LineVec2Mx p),1) "*" Col(M,i) by A4,Th39
.= p "*" Col(M,i) by MATRIXR1:48;
(Line((LineVec2Mx p)*M,1)).i = ((LineVec2Mx p)*M)*(1,i) by A2,A3,
MATRIX_0:def 7;
hence p "*" Col(M,i) = (p*M).i by A5,MATRIXR1:def 12;
end;
end;
theorem Th41:
for M being Matrix of REAL for p being FinSequence of REAL st
width M = len p & width M > 0 holds for i st i in Seg len (M*p) holds (M*p).i =
Line(M,i) "*" p
proof
let M be Matrix of REAL;
let p be FinSequence of REAL such that
A1: width M = len p & width M > 0;
A2: len (M*p) = len Col(M*(ColVec2Mx p),1) by MATRIXR1:def 11
.= len (M*(ColVec2Mx p)) by MATRIX_0:def 8;
hereby
let i such that
A3: i in Seg len (M*p);
i in dom (M*(ColVec2Mx p)) by A2,A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A4: (Col(M*(ColVec2Mx p),1)).i = (M*(ColVec2Mx p))*(i,1) by MATRIX_0:def 8;
A5: len (ColVec2Mx p) = width M by A1,MATRIXR1:def 9;
then width (M*(ColVec2Mx p)) = width ColVec2Mx p by Th39;
then width (M*(ColVec2Mx p)) = 1 by A1,MATRIXR1:def 9;
then 1 in Seg width (M*(ColVec2Mx p));
then [i,1] in Indices (M*(ColVec2Mx p)) by A2,A3,Th12;
then (M*(ColVec2Mx p)) *(i,1) = Line(M,i) "*" Col((ColVec2Mx p),1) by A5
,Th39
.= Line(M,i) "*" p by A1,MATRIXR1:45;
hence Line(M,i) "*" p = (M*p).i by A4,MATRIXR1:def 11;
end;
end;
theorem Th42:
for M,M1,M2 being Matrix of REAL st width M1 = len M2 holds M =
M1*M2 iff len M = len M1 & width M = width M2 & for i st i in Seg len M holds
Line(M,i) = Line(M1,i) * M2
proof
let M,M1,M2 be Matrix of REAL such that
A1: width M1 = len M2;
hereby
assume
A2: M = M1*M2;
hence
A3: len M = len M1 & width M = width M2 by A1,Th39;
thus for i st i in Seg len M holds Line(M,i) = Line(M1,i) * M2
proof
let i such that
A4: i in Seg len M;
A5: len Line(M1,i) = len M2 by A1,MATRIX_0:def 7;
then
A6: len(Line(M1,i) * M2) = width M2 by MATRIXR1:62;
len Line(M,i) = width M by MATRIX_0:def 7;
then
A7: dom(Line(M,i)) = Seg width M2 by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= dom(Line(M1,i) * M2) by A6,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A8: i in dom M by A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
for j be Nat st j in dom Line(M,i) holds (Line(M,i)).j=(Line(M1,i)
* M2).j
proof
let j be Nat such that
A9: j in dom Line(M,i);
A10: j in Seg len(Line(M1,i) * M2) by A7,A9,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
j in Seg len Line(M,i) by A9,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then j in Seg width M by MATRIX_0:def 7;
then
A11: [i,j] in Indices M by A4,Th12;
A12: (M.i).j in REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
thus (Line(M,i)).j = (M.i).j by A8,MATRIX_0:60
.= M*(i,j) by A11,MATRIX_0:def 5,A12
.= Line(M1,i) "*" Col(M2,j) by A1,A2,A11,Th39
.= (Line(M1,i) * M2).j by A5,A10,Th40;
end;
hence thesis by A7,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
end;
assume that
A13: len M = len M1 and
A14: width M = width M2 and
A15: for i st i in Seg len M holds Line(M,i) = Line(M1,i) * M2;
for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) = Line(M1,i) "*" Col(M2,j)
proof
let i,j such that
A16: [i,j] in Indices M;
A17: i in Seg len M by A16,Th12;
then
A18: i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A19: len Line(M1,i) = len M2 by A1,MATRIX_0:def 7;
j in Seg width M by A16,Th12;
then
A20: j in Seg len(Line(M1,i) * M2) by A14,A19,MATRIXR1:62;
(M.i).j in REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
hence M*(i,j) = (M.i).j by A16,MATRIX_0:def 5
.= (Line(M,i)).j by A18,MATRIX_0:60
.= (Line(M1,i) * M2).j by A15,A17
.= Line(M1,i) "*" Col(M2,j) by A19,A20,Th40;
end;
hence thesis by A1,A13,A14,Th39;
end;
definition
let x,y be FinSequence of REAL,M be Matrix of REAL;
assume that
A1: len x = len M and
A2: len y = width M;
func QuadraticForm(x,M,y) -> Matrix of REAL means
:Def4:
len it = len x &
width it = len y & for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M
holds it*(i,j)=(x.i)*(M*(i,j))*(y.j);
existence
proof
deffunc F(Nat,Nat) = In((x.$1)*(M*($1,$2))*(y.$2),REAL);
consider M1 being Matrix of len M,width M,REAL such that
A3: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j) = F(i,j) from
MATRIX_0:sch 1;
take M1;
thus
A4: len M1=len x by A1,MATRIX_0:def 2;
A5: now
per cases;
case
A6: len M=0;
then width M1=0 by A1,A4,MATRIX_0:def 3;
hence width M1=len y by A2,A6,MATRIX_0:def 3;
end;
case
len M>0;
hence width M1=len y by A2,MATRIX_0:23;
end;
end;
A7: Indices M =[:dom M,Seg width M:] by MATRIX_0:def 4;
dom M = dom M1 by A1,A4,FINSEQ_3:29;
then
A8: Indices M1=[:dom M,Seg width M:] by A2,A5,MATRIX_0:def 4;
thus width M1 = len y by A5;
let i,j be Nat;
assume
[i,j] in Indices M;
hence M1*(i,j) = F(i,j) by A3,A7,A8
.=(x.i)*(M*(i,j))*(y.j);
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Matrix of REAL;
assume that
A9: len M1=len x and
A10: width M1=len y and
A11: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M holds M1*(i,j)=(x.i)*(M*(i,j
)) *(y.j) and
A12: len M2=len x & width M2=len y and
A13: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M holds M2*(i,j)=(x.i)*(M*(i,j
)) *(y.j);
now
let i,j be Nat;
A14: Indices M= [:dom M,Seg width M:] by MATRIX_0:def 4;
dom M1 = dom M by A1,A9,FINSEQ_3:29;
then
A15: Indices M1=[:dom M,Seg width M:] by A2,A10,MATRIX_0:def 4;
assume
A16: [i,j] in Indices M1;
hence M1*(i,j)=(x.i)*(M*(i,j))*(y.j) by A11,A15,A14
.=M2*(i,j) by A13,A16,A15,A14;
end;
hence thesis by A9,A10,A12,MATRIX_0:21;
end;
end;
theorem
for x,y being FinSequence of REAL,M being Matrix of REAL st len x =
len M & len y = width M & len y > 0 holds (QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@ =
QuadraticForm(y,M@,x)
proof
let x,y be FinSequence of REAL,M be Matrix of REAL;
assume that
A1: len x = len M and
A2: len y = width M and
A3: len y > 0;
A4: len (M@) = len y by A2,MATRIX_0:def 6;
A5: width (M@) = len x by A1,A2,A3,MATRIX_0:54;
then
A6: len QuadraticForm(y,M@,x) = len y & width QuadraticForm(y,M@,x) = len x
by A4,Def4;
A7: len ((QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@) = width (QuadraticForm(x,M,y)) by
MATRIX_0:def 6;
A8: width QuadraticForm(x,M,y)=len y by A1,A2,Def4;
then
A9: width ((QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@) = len QuadraticForm(x,M,y) by A3,
MATRIX_0:54;
A10: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices ((QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@) holds (
QuadraticForm(y,M@,x))*(i,j) = ((QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@)*(i,j)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A11: [i,j] in Indices ((QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@);
reconsider i,j as Nat;
A12: 1<=j by A11,MATRIXC1:1;
A13: j<=len QuadraticForm(x,M,y) by A9,A11,MATRIXC1:1;
then
A14: j<=len M by A1,A2,Def4;
A15: 1<=i by A11,MATRIXC1:1;
A16: i<=width QuadraticForm(x,M,y) by A7,A11,MATRIXC1:1;
then i<=width M by A1,A2,Def4;
then
A17: [j,i] in Indices M by A12,A15,A14,MATRIXC1:1;
A18: j<=width (M@) by A1,A2,A5,A13,Def4;
A19: 1<=i by A11,MATRIXC1:1;
1<=i by A11,MATRIXC1:1;
then
A20: [j,i] in Indices (QuadraticForm(x,M,y)) by A16,A12,A13,MATRIXC1:1;
i<=len (M@) by A1,A2,A4,A16,Def4;
then [i,j] in Indices M@ by A12,A19,A18,MATRIXC1:1;
then
(QuadraticForm(y,M@,x))*(i,j) = (y.i)*((M@)*(i,j))*(x.j) by A4,A5,Def4
.= (y.i)*(M*(j,i))*(x.j) by A17,MATRIX_0:def 6
.=(x.j)*(M*(j,i))*(y.i)
.= (QuadraticForm(x,M,y))*(j,i) by A1,A2,A17,Def4
.= ((QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@)*(i,j) by A20,MATRIX_0:def 6;
hence thesis;
end;
A21: len ((QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@) = width (QuadraticForm(x,M,y)) by
MATRIX_0:def 6
.= len y by A1,A2,Def4;
width ((QuadraticForm(x,M,y))@) = len QuadraticForm(x,M,y) by A3,A8,
MATRIX_0:54
.= len x by A1,A2,Def4;
hence thesis by A21,A6,A10,MATRIX_0:21;
end;
theorem Th44:
for x,y being FinSequence of REAL,M being Matrix of REAL st len
x = len M & len y = width M & len y>0 holds |(x,M*y)| = SumAll QuadraticForm(x,
M,y)
proof
let x,y be FinSequence of REAL,M be Matrix of REAL;
set Z=QuadraticForm(x,M,y);
assume that
A1: len x = len M and
A2: len y = width M and
A3: len y>0;
A4: width Z = len y by A1,A2,Def4;
A5: len LineSum Z = len Z by Th20;
len(M*y) = len x by A1,A2,A3,MATRIXR1:61;
then
A6: len mlt(x,M*y) = len x by Th30
.= len LineSum Z by A1,A2,A5,Def4;
for i be Nat st 1<=i & i<=len (LineSum Z) holds (LineSum Z).i = (mlt(x,M
*y)).i
proof
let i be Nat;
assume that
A7: 1<=i and
A8: i<=len LineSum Z;
A9: i in Seg len LineSum Z by A7,A8;
then
A10: i in Seg len M by A1,A2,A5,Def4;
then
A11: i in Seg len (M*y) by A2,A3,MATRIXR1:61;
A12: len(Line(M,i))=len y by A2,MATRIX_0:def 7;
A13: i<=len M by A10,FINSEQ_1:1;
A14: for j be Nat st 1<=j & j<=len (Line(Z,i)) holds ((x.i)*(mlt(Line(M,i)
,y))).j = (Line(Z,i)).j
proof
let j be Nat such that
A15: 1<=j and
A16: j<=len Line(Z,i);
j<=width M by A2,A4,A16,MATRIX_0:def 7;
then
A17: [i,j] in Indices M by A7,A13,A15,MATRIXC1:1;
j in Seg len Line(Z,i) by A15,A16;
then
A18: j in Seg width Z by MATRIX_0:def 7;
thus ((x.i)*(mlt(Line(M,i),y))).j =(x.i)*((mlt(Line(M,i),y)).j) by
RVSUM_1:44
.=(x.i)*((Line(M,i)).j*y.j) by RVSUM_1:59
.=(x.i)*(M*(i,j)*y.j) by A2,A4,A18,MATRIX_0:def 7
.=(x.i)*(M*(i,j))*(y.j)
.=Z*(i,j) by A1,A2,A17,Def4
.=(Line(Z,i)).j by A18,MATRIX_0:def 7;
end;
A19: len Line(Z,i) = len y by A4,MATRIX_0:def 7;
len mlt(Line(M,i),y) = len y by A12,Th30;
then len ((x.i)*(mlt(Line(M,i),y))) =len Line(Z,i) by A19,RVSUM_1:117;
then
A20: (x.i)*(mlt(Line(M,i),y)) = Line(Z,i) by A14;
(mlt(x,M*y)).i = (x.i)*((M*y).i) by RVSUM_1:59
.=(x.i)*(Line(M,i) "*" y) by A2,A3,A11,Th41
.=Sum((x.i)*(mlt(Line(M,i),y))) by RVSUM_1:87;
hence thesis by A5,A9,A20,Th20;
end;
hence thesis by A6,FINSEQ_1:14;
end;
theorem
for x being FinSequence of REAL holds |(x,(len x |-> 1))| = Sum x by Th32;
theorem Th46:
for x,y being FinSequence of REAL,M being Matrix of REAL st len
x = len M & len y = width M holds |(x*M,y)| = SumAll QuadraticForm(x,M,y)
proof
let x,y be FinSequence of REAL,M be Matrix of REAL;
set Z=QuadraticForm(x,M,y);
assume that
A1: len x = len M and
A2: len y = width M;
A3: len Z = len x by A1,A2,Def4;
A4: len ColSum Z = width Z by Def2;
len(x*M) = len y by A1,A2,MATRIXR1:62;
then
A5: len mlt(x*M,y) = len y by Th30
.= len ColSum Z by A1,A2,A4,Def4;
for i be Nat st 1<=i & i<=len (ColSum Z) holds (ColSum Z).i = (mlt(x*M,y )).i
proof
let i be Nat;
assume that
A6: 1<=i and
A7: i<=len ColSum Z;
A8: i in Seg len ColSum Z by A6,A7;
then
A9: i in Seg width M by A1,A2,A4,Def4;
then
A10: i in Seg len (x*M) by A1,MATRIXR1:62;
A11: len(Col(M,i))= len x by A1,MATRIX_0:def 8;
A12: i<=width M by A9,FINSEQ_1:1;
A13: for j be Nat st 1<=j & j<=len (Col(Z,i)) holds ((y.i)*(mlt(x,Col(M,i)
))).j =(Col(Z,i)).j
proof
let j be Nat such that
A14: 1<=j and
A15: j<=len (Col(Z,i));
j<=len M by A1,A3,A15,MATRIX_0:def 8;
then
A16: [j,i] in Indices M by A6,A12,A14,MATRIXC1:1;
j in Seg len (Col(Z,i)) by A14,A15;
then
A17: j in Seg len Z by MATRIX_0:def 8;
then
A18: j in dom Z by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A19: j in dom M by A1,A3,A17,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
thus ((y.i)*(mlt(x,Col(M,i)))).j =(y.i)*((mlt(x,Col(M,i))).j) by
RVSUM_1:44
.=(y.i)*(x.j*(Col(M,i)).j) by RVSUM_1:59
.=(y.i)*(x.j*(M*(j,i))) by A19,MATRIX_0:def 8
.=Z*(j,i) by A1,A2,A16,Def4
.=(Col(Z,i)).j by A18,MATRIX_0:def 8;
end;
A20: len Col(Z,i) = len x by A3,MATRIX_0:def 8;
len mlt(x,Col(M,i)) = len x by A11,Th30;
then len ((y.i)*(mlt(x,Col(M,i)))) =len Col(Z,i) by A20,RVSUM_1:117;
then
A21: (y.i)*(mlt(x,Col(M,i))) = Col(Z,i) by A13;
(mlt(x*M,y)).i = ((x*M).i)*(y.i) by RVSUM_1:59
.=(x "*" Col(M,i))*(y.i) by A1,A10,Th40
.=Sum((y.i)* (mlt(x,Col(M,i)))) by RVSUM_1:87;
hence thesis by A4,A8,A21,Def2;
end;
hence |((x*M),y)| = Sum ColSum Z by A5,FINSEQ_1:14
.= SumAll Z by Th29;
end;
theorem Th47:
for x,y being FinSequence of REAL,M being Matrix of REAL st len
x = len M & len y = width M & len y>0 holds |((x*M),y)| = |(x,(M*y))|
proof
let x,y be FinSequence of REAL, M be Matrix of REAL such that
A1: len x = len M & len y = width M and
A2: len y>0;
thus |((x*M),y)| = SumAll QuadraticForm(x,M,y) by A1,Th46
.= |(x,(M*y))| by A1,A2,Th44;
end;
theorem
for x,y being FinSequence of REAL,M being Matrix of REAL st len y=len
M & len x =width M & len x>0 & len y>0 holds |((M*x),y)| = |(x,(M@*y))|
proof
let x,y be FinSequence of REAL, M be Matrix of REAL such that
A1: len y=len M and
A2: len x =width M and
A3: len x>0 and
A4: len y>0;
A5: len (M@) = width M & width (M@) = len M by A2,A3,MATRIX_0:54;
thus |((M*x),y)| = |((x*M@),y)| by A1,A2,A3,A4,MATRIXR1:53
.= |(x,(M@*y))| by A1,A2,A4,A5,Th47;
end;
theorem Th49:
for x,y being FinSequence of REAL,M being Matrix of REAL st len
y=len M & len x =width M & len x>0 & len y>0 holds |(x,(y*M))| = |((x*M@),y)|
proof
let x,y be FinSequence of REAL, M be Matrix of REAL such that
A1: len y=len M and
A2: len x =width M and
A3: len x>0 and
A4: len y>0;
A5: len (M@) = width M & width (M@) = len M by A2,A3,MATRIX_0:54;
thus |(x,(y*M))| = |(x,(M@*y))| by A1,A2,A3,A4,MATRIXR1:52
.= |((x*M@),y)| by A1,A2,A4,A5,Th47;
end;
theorem Th50:
for x being FinSequence of REAL,M being Matrix of REAL st len x
= len M & x = len x |-> 1 holds for k st k in Seg len(x*M) holds (x*M).k = Sum
Col(M,k)
proof
let x be FinSequence of REAL, M be Matrix of REAL such that
A1: len x = len M and
A2: x = len x |-> 1;
hereby
let k such that
A3: k in Seg len(x*M);
A4: len Col(M,k) = len x by A1,MATRIX_0:def 8;
thus (x*M).k = x "*" Col(M,k) by A1,A3,Th40
.= Sum Col(M,k) by A2,A4,Th32;
end;
end;
theorem
for x being FinSequence of REAL,M being Matrix of REAL st len x =
width M & width M > 0 & x = (len x |-> 1) holds for k st k in Seg len(M*x)
holds (M*x).k = Sum Line(M,k)
proof
let x be FinSequence of REAL, M be Matrix of REAL such that
A1: len x = width M and
A2: width M > 0 and
A3: x = (len x |-> 1);
hereby
let k such that
A4: k in Seg len(M*x);
A5: len Line(M,k) = len x by A1,MATRIX_0:def 7;
thus (M*x).k =Line(M,k)"*" x by A1,A2,A4,Th41
.= Sum Line(M,k) by A3,A5,Th32;
end;
end;
reconsider jj=1, zz=0 as Element of REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
theorem Th52:
for n being non zero Nat ex P being FinSequence of REAL st len
P = n & (for i st i in dom P holds P.i >= 0) & Sum P = 1
proof
let n be non zero Nat;
reconsider n as non zero Nat;
consider e being FinSequence of REAL such that
A1: len e = n and
A2: for i be Nat st i in Seg n holds (i in Seg 1 implies e.i = jj) & (
not i in Seg 1 implies e.i = zz) by Th2;
A3: n >= 1 by NAT_1:14;
A4: Sum e = 1
proof
consider f be Real_Sequence such that
A5: f.1 = e.1 and
A6: for n be Nat st 0 <> n & n < len e holds f.(n+1) = f.n+e.(n+1) and
A7: Sum e = f.len e by A1,NAT_1:14,PROB_3:63;
for n st n <> 0 & n <= len e holds f.n = 1
proof
defpred p[Nat] means $1 <> 0 & $1 <= len e implies f.$1 = 1;
A8: now
let k be Nat such that
A9: p[k];
now
assume that
k+1 <> 0 and
A10: k+1 <= len e;
per cases by A10,NAT_1:13;
suppose
A11: k = 0 & k < len e;
1 in Seg 1 & 1 in Seg n by A3;
hence f.(k+1) = 1 by A2,A5,A11;
end;
suppose
A12: k > 0 & k < len e;
then k >= 1 by NAT_1:14;
then k + 1 > 1 by NAT_1:13;
then
A13: k + 1 in Seg n & not k + 1 in Seg 1 by A1,A10,FINSEQ_1:1;
thus f.(k+1) =1 + e.(k+1) by A6,A9,A12
.= 1 + 0 by A2,A13
.= 1;
end;
end;
hence p[k+1];
end;
A14: p[0];
for n holds p[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A14,A8);
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by A1,A7;
end;
take e;
for i st i in dom e holds e.i >= 0
proof
let i;
assume i in dom e;
then i in Seg n by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
hence thesis by A1,A4;
end;
definition
let p be real-valued FinSequence;
attr p is ProbFinS means
:Def5:
(for i st i in dom p holds p.i >= 0) & Sum p = 1;
end;
registration
cluster non empty ProbFinS for FinSequence of REAL;
existence
proof
consider p be FinSequence of REAL such that
A1: ( len p = 1 & for i st i in dom p holds p.i >= 0 )& Sum p = 1 by Th52;
take p;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
end;
registration
cluster non empty ProbFinS for real-valued FinSequence;
existence
proof
take the non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of REAL;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
theorem
for p being non empty ProbFinS real-valued FinSequence
for k st k in dom p holds p.k <= 1
proof
let p be non empty ProbFinS real-valued FinSequence;
Sum p = 1 & for i be Nat st i in dom p holds p.i >= 0 by Def5;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
theorem Th54:
for M being non empty-yielding Matrix of D holds 1<=len M & 1<= width M
proof
let M be non empty-yielding Matrix of D;
( not len M=0)& not width M=0 by MATRIX_0:def 10;
hence thesis by NAT_1:14;
end;
definition
let M be Matrix of REAL;
attr M is m-nonnegative means
:Def6:
for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*( i,j) >= 0;
end;
definition
let M be Matrix of REAL;
attr M is with_sum=1 means
:Def7:
SumAll M = 1;
end;
definition
let M be Matrix of REAL;
attr M is Joint_Probability means
M is m-nonnegative with_sum=1;
end;
registration
cluster Joint_Probability -> m-nonnegative with_sum=1 for Matrix of REAL;
coherence;
cluster m-nonnegative with_sum=1 -> Joint_Probability for Matrix of REAL;
coherence;
end;
theorem Th55:
for n,m being non zero Nat holds ex M be Matrix of n,m,REAL st
M is m-nonnegative & SumAll M = 1
proof
let n,m be non zero Nat;
consider m1 being Nat such that
A1: m = m1 + 1 by NAT_1:6;
consider n1 being Nat such that
A2: n = n1 + 1 by NAT_1:6;
reconsider n,m as non zero Nat;
reconsider m1, n1 as Nat;
consider e1 being FinSequence of REAL such that
A3: len e1 = m and
A4: for i be Nat st i in Seg m holds (i in Seg m1 implies e1.i=zz) & (
not i in Seg m1 implies e1.i=jj) by Th2;
m1+1 > m1 by NAT_1:13;
then
A5: not m1+1 in Seg m1 by FINSEQ_1:1;
m1+1 in Seg m by A1,FINSEQ_1:4;
then e1.(m1+1) = 1 by A4,A5;
then
A6: e1 = (e1|m1) ^ <*1*> by A1,A3,RFINSEQ:7;
reconsider e3 = e1|m1 as FinSequence of REAL;
m > m1 by A1,NAT_1:13;
then
A7: len e3 = m1 by A3,FINSEQ_1:59;
A8: dom e1 = Seg m by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A9: Sum e1 = 1
proof
per cases;
suppose
m1 = 0;
then
A10: Sum e3 = 0 by RVSUM_1:72;
thus Sum e1 = Sum (e1|m1) + 1 by A6,RVSUM_1:74
.= 1 by A10;
end;
suppose
A11: m1 <> 0;
for i be Nat st i in dom e3 holds e3.i = 0
proof
let i be Nat;
assume i in dom e3;
then
A12: i in Seg m1 by A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
m1+1 in Seg(m1+1) by FINSEQ_1:4;
then m1 in Seg m by A1,A11,FINSEQ_1:61;
then m1 in dom e1 by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then e3.i = e1.i & i in dom e1 by A12,RFINSEQ:6;
hence thesis by A4,A8,A12;
end;
then e3 = m1 |-> 0 by A7,A11,Th1,Lm4;
then
A13: Sum e3 = m1 * 0 by RVSUM_1:80
.= 0;
thus Sum e1 = Sum (e1|m1) + 1 by A6,RVSUM_1:74
.= 1 by A13;
end;
end;
reconsider e2 = m |-> In(0,REAL) as FinSequence of REAL;
len e2 = m by CARD_1:def 7;
then consider M1 being Matrix of n,m,REAL such that
A14: for i be Nat st i in Seg n holds (i in Seg n1 implies M1.i = e2) & (
not i in Seg n1 implies M1.i = e1) by A3,Th19;
A15: Sum e2 = m * 0 by RVSUM_1:80
.= 0;
A16: len Sum M1 = n & for i st i in Seg n holds (i in Seg n1 implies (Sum M1
).i = 0) & (not i in Seg n1 implies (Sum M1).i = 1)
proof
thus
A17: len Sum M1 = len M1 by Def1
.= n by MATRIX_0:def 2;
let i such that
A18: i in Seg n;
A19: i in dom Sum M1 by A17,A18,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
thus i in Seg n1 implies (Sum M1).i = 0
proof
assume
A20: i in Seg n1;
thus (Sum M1).i = Sum(M1.i) by A19,Def1
.= 0 by A14,A15,A18,A20;
end;
assume
A21: not i in Seg n1;
thus (Sum M1).i = Sum(M1.i) by A19,Def1
.= 1 by A14,A9,A18,A21;
end;
A22: SumAll M1 = 1
proof
reconsider e4 = Sum M1 as FinSequence of REAL;
reconsider e5 = e4|n1 as FinSequence of REAL;
n1+1 > n1 by NAT_1:13;
then
A23: not n1+1 in Seg n1 by FINSEQ_1:1;
n1+1 in Seg n by A2,FINSEQ_1:4;
then
A24: e4.(n1+1) = 1 by A16,A23;
n > n1 by A2,NAT_1:13;
then
A25: len e5 = n1 by A16,FINSEQ_1:59;
A26: dom e4 = Seg n by A16,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
Sum e4 = 1
proof
per cases;
suppose
n1 = 0;
then
A27: e5 = <*>REAL;
thus Sum e4 = Sum ((e4|n1) ^ <*1*>) by A2,A16,A24,RFINSEQ:7
.= Sum (e4|n1) + 1 by RVSUM_1:74
.= 1 by A27,RVSUM_1:72;
end;
suppose
A28: n1 <> 0;
for i be Nat st i in dom e5 holds e5.i = 0
proof
let i be Nat;
assume i in dom e5;
then
A29: i in Seg n1 by A25,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
n1+1 in Seg(n1+1) by FINSEQ_1:4;
then n1 in Seg n by A2,A28,FINSEQ_1:61;
then n1 in dom e4 by A16,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then e5.i = e4.i & i in dom e4 by A29,RFINSEQ:6;
hence thesis by A16,A26,A29;
end;
then e5 = n1 |-> 0 by A25,A28,Th1,Lm4;
then
A30: Sum e5 = n1 * 0 by RVSUM_1:80
.= 0;
thus Sum e4 = Sum ((e4|n1) ^ <*1*>) by A2,A16,A24,RFINSEQ:7
.= Sum (e4|n1) + 1 by RVSUM_1:74
.= 1 by A30;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j) >=0
proof
let i,j such that
A31: [i,j] in Indices M1;
consider p1 being FinSequence of REAL such that
A32: p1 = M1.i and
A33: M1*(i,j) = p1.j by A31,MATRIX_0:def 5;
A34: len M1 = n by MATRIX_0:def 2;
A35: [i,j] in [:dom M1,Seg width M1:] by A31,MATRIX_0:def 4;
then i in dom M1 by ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A36: i in Seg n by A34,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
j in Seg width M1 by A35,ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A37: j in Seg m by A34,MATRIX_0:20;
per cases by A14,A32,A36;
suppose
p1 = e2;
hence thesis by A33;
end;
suppose
p1 = e1;
hence thesis by A4,A33,A37;
end;
end;
then M1 is m-nonnegative;
hence thesis by A22;
end;
registration
cluster non empty-yielding Joint_Probability for Matrix of REAL;
existence
proof
set n = 1, m = 1;
consider M be Matrix of n,m,REAL such that
A1: M is m-nonnegative and
A2: SumAll M = 1 by Th55;
take M;
A3: M is with_sum=1 by A2;
A4: len M = 1 by MATRIX_0:def 2;
then width M = 1 by MATRIX_0:20;
hence thesis by A1,A4,A3,MATRIX_0:def 10;
end;
end;
theorem Th56:
for M being non empty-yielding Joint_Probability Matrix of REAL
holds M@ is non empty-yielding Joint_Probability Matrix of REAL
proof
let M be non empty-yielding Joint_Probability Matrix of REAL;
set n = len M;
set m = width M;
A1: n > 0 by Th54;
A2: m > 0 by Th54;
then
A3: len (M@) = m & width (M@) = n by MATRIX_0:54;
then reconsider M1=M@ as Matrix of m,n,REAL by MATRIX_0:51;
for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j) >=0
proof
let i,j;
assume [i,j] in Indices M1;
then
A4: [j,i] in Indices M by MATRIX_0:def 6;
then M1*(i,j) = M*(j,i) by MATRIX_0:def 6;
hence thesis by A4,Def6;
end;
then
A5: M1 is m-nonnegative;
SumAll M1 = SumAll M by Th28
.= 1 by Def7;
then M1 is with_sum=1;
hence thesis by A1,A2,A3,A5,MATRIX_0:def 10;
end;
theorem
for M being non empty-yielding Joint_Probability Matrix of REAL holds
for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) <= 1
proof
let M be non empty-yielding Joint_Probability Matrix of REAL;
A1: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) >=0 by Def6;
A2: for i be Nat st i in dom Sum M holds (Sum M).i >= 0
proof
let i be Nat such that
A3: i in dom Sum M;
i in Seg len Sum M by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in Seg len M by Def1;
then i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then for j be Nat st j in dom(M.i) holds (M.i).j >= 0 by A1,Lm1;
then Sum(M.i) >= 0 by RVSUM_1:84;
hence thesis by A3,Def1;
end;
A4: for i st i in dom Sum M holds (Sum M).i <= 1
proof
let i;
assume i in dom Sum M;
then (Sum M).i <= SumAll M by A2,Th5;
hence thesis by Def7;
end;
A5: for i st i in dom M holds for j st j in dom(M.i) holds (M.i).j <= Sum(M. i)
proof
let i;
assume i in dom M;
then for j be Nat st j in dom(M.i) holds (M.i).j >= 0 by A1,Lm1;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
A6: for i st i in dom M holds for j st j in dom(M.i) holds (M.i).j <= 1
proof
let i such that
A7: i in dom M;
i in Seg len M by A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in Seg len Sum M by Def1;
then
A8: i in dom Sum M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then (Sum M).i <= 1 by A4;
then
A9: Sum(M.i) <= 1 by A8,Def1;
let j;
assume j in dom(M.i);
then (M.i).j <= Sum(M.i) by A5,A7;
hence thesis by A9,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
let i,j such that
A10: [i,j] in Indices M;
A11: ex p1 being FinSequence of REAL st p1 = M.i & M*(i,j) = p1.j by A10,
MATRIX_0:def 5;
i in Seg len M by A10,Th12;
then
A12: i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
j in Seg width M by A10,Th12;
then j in Seg len(M.i) by A12,MATRIX_0:36;
then j in dom(M.i) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A6,A12,A11;
end;
definition
let M be Matrix of REAL;
attr M is with_line_sum=1 means
:Def9:
for k st k in dom M holds Sum (M.k) = 1;
end;
theorem Th58:
for n,m being non zero Nat holds ex M being Matrix of n,m,REAL
st M is m-nonnegative with_line_sum=1
proof
let n,m be non zero Nat;
consider m1 being Nat such that
A1: m = m1 + 1 by NAT_1:6;
reconsider m1 as Nat;
consider e1 being FinSequence of REAL such that
A2: len e1 = m and
A3: for i be Nat st i in Seg m holds (i in Seg m1 implies e1.i=zz) & (
not i in Seg m1 implies e1.i=jj) by Th2;
m1+1 > m1 by NAT_1:13;
then
A4: not m1+1 in Seg m1 by FINSEQ_1:1;
m1+1 in Seg m by A1,FINSEQ_1:4;
then e1.(m1+1) = 1 by A3,A4;
then
A5: e1 = (e1|m1) ^ <*1*> by A1,A2,RFINSEQ:7;
reconsider M1 = n |-> e1 as Matrix of n,m,REAL by A2,Th18;
A6: len M1 = n by MATRIX_0:def 2;
A7: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j) >=0
proof
let i,j such that
A8: [i,j] in Indices M1;
consider p1 being FinSequence of REAL such that
A9: p1 = M1.i and
A10: M1*(i,j) = p1.j by A8,MATRIX_0:def 5;
A11: [i,j] in [:dom M1,Seg width M1:] by A8,MATRIX_0:def 4;
then j in Seg width M1 by ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A12: j in Seg m by A6,MATRIX_0:20;
i in dom M1 by A11,ZFMISC_1:87;
then i in Seg n by A6,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then p1 = e1 by A9,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence thesis by A3,A10,A12;
end;
reconsider e3 = e1|m1 as FinSequence of REAL;
m > m1 by A1,NAT_1:13;
then
A13: len e3 = m1 by A2,FINSEQ_1:59;
take M1;
A14: dom e1 = Seg m by A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A15: Sum e1 = 1
proof
per cases;
suppose
m1 = 0;
then
A16: e3 = <*>REAL;
thus Sum e1=Sum (e1|m1)+1 by A5,RVSUM_1:74
.=1 by A16,RVSUM_1:72;
end;
suppose
A17: m1 <> 0;
for i be Nat st i in dom e3 holds e3.i = 0
proof
let i be Nat;
assume i in dom e3;
then
A18: i in Seg m1 by A13,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
m1+1 in Seg(m1+1) by FINSEQ_1:4;
then m1 in Seg m by A1,A17,FINSEQ_1:61;
then m1 in dom e1 by A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then e3.i = e1.i & i in dom e1 by A18,RFINSEQ:6;
hence thesis by A3,A14,A18;
end;
then e3 = m1 |-> 0 by A13,A17,Th1,Lm4;
then
A19: Sum e3 = m1 * 0 by RVSUM_1:80
.= 0;
thus Sum e1=Sum (e1|m1)+1 by A5,RVSUM_1:74
.=1 by A19;
end;
end;
for i st i in dom M1 holds Sum(M1.i) = 1
proof
let i;
assume i in dom M1;
then i in Seg n by A6,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A15,FUNCOP_1:7;
end;
hence thesis by A7;
end;
definition
let M be Matrix of REAL;
attr M is Conditional_Probability means
M is m-nonnegative with_line_sum=1;
end;
registration
cluster Conditional_Probability -> m-nonnegative with_line_sum=1 for
Matrix of
REAL;
coherence;
cluster m-nonnegative with_line_sum=1 -> Conditional_Probability for
Matrix of
REAL;
coherence;
end;
registration
cluster non empty-yielding Conditional_Probability for Matrix of REAL;
existence
proof
set n = 1, m = 1;
consider M be Matrix of n,m,REAL such that
A1: M is m-nonnegative with_line_sum=1 by Th58;
take M;
A2: len M = 1 by MATRIX_0:def 2;
then width M = 1 by MATRIX_0:20;
hence thesis by A1,A2,MATRIX_0:def 10;
end;
end;
theorem
for M being non empty-yielding Conditional_Probability Matrix of REAL
holds for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) <= 1
proof
let M be non empty-yielding Conditional_Probability Matrix of REAL;
A1: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) >= 0 by Def6;
A2: for i st i in dom M holds for j st j in dom(M.i) holds (M.i).j <= 1
proof
let i such that
A3: i in dom M;
A4: for j be Nat st j in dom(M.i) holds (M.i).j >= 0 by A1,A3,Lm1;
let j;
assume j in dom(M.i);
then (M.i).j <= Sum(M.i) by A4,Th5;
hence thesis by A3,Def9;
end;
let i,j such that
A5: [i,j] in Indices M;
A6: ex p1 being FinSequence of REAL st p1 = M.i & M*(i,j) = p1.j by A5,
MATRIX_0:def 5;
i in Seg len M by A5,Th12;
then
A7: i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
j in Seg width M by A5,Th12;
then j in Seg len(M.i) by A7,MATRIX_0:36;
then j in dom(M.i) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A2,A7,A6;
end;
theorem Th60:
for M being non empty-yielding Matrix of REAL holds M is non
empty-yielding Conditional_Probability Matrix of REAL iff for i st i in dom M
holds Line(M,i) is non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of REAL
proof
let M be non empty-yielding Matrix of REAL;
hereby
assume
A1: M is non empty-yielding Conditional_Probability Matrix of REAL;
hereby
set m = width M;
let i such that
A2: i in dom M;
for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) >=0 by A1,Def6;
then
A3: len Line(M,i) = m & for j st j in dom Line(M,i) holds Line(M,i).j >=
0 by A2,Lm2,MATRIX_0:def 7;
Sum Line(M,i) = Sum (M.i) by A2,MATRIX_0:60
.= 1 by A1,A2,Def9;
hence Line(M,i) is non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of REAL by A3,Def5,Th54
;
end;
end;
assume
A4: for i st i in dom M holds Line(M,i) is non empty ProbFinS
FinSequence of REAL;
now
let k such that
A5: k in dom M;
Line(M,k) is ProbFinS by A4,A5;
then Sum Line(M,k) = 1;
hence Sum(M.k) = 1 by A5,MATRIX_0:60;
end;
then
A6: M is with_line_sum=1;
for i,j st i in dom M & j in dom Line(M,i) holds Line(M,i).j >=0
proof
let i,j such that
A7: i in dom M and
A8: j in dom Line(M,i);
Line(M,i) is ProbFinS by A4,A7;
hence thesis by A8;
end;
then for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) >=0 by Lm2;
then M is m-nonnegative;
hence thesis by A6;
end;
theorem
for M being non empty-yielding with_line_sum=1 Matrix of REAL holds
SumAll M = len M
proof
let M be non empty-yielding with_line_sum=1 Matrix of REAL;
set n = len M;
A1: len Sum M = n & for i be Nat st i in dom Sum M holds (Sum M).i = 1
proof
thus len Sum M = n by Def1;
hereby
let i be Nat;
assume
A2: i in dom Sum M;
then i in Seg len Sum M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in Seg len M by Def1;
then i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then Sum(M.i) = 1 by Def9;
hence (Sum M).i = 1 by A2,Def1;
end;
end;
n > 0 by Th54;
then Sum M = n |-> jj by A1,Th1;
hence SumAll M = n * 1 by RVSUM_1:80
.= n;
end;
notation
let M be Matrix of REAL;
synonym Row_Marginal M for LineSum M;
synonym Column_Marginal M for ColSum M;
end;
registration
let M be non empty-yielding Joint_Probability Matrix of REAL;
cluster Row_Marginal M -> non empty ProbFinS;
coherence
proof
set n = len M;
set e = LineSum M;
A1: len e = len M by Th20;
A2: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) >= 0 by Def6;
A3: for i st i in dom e holds e.i >= 0
proof
let i;
assume i in dom e;
then
A4: i in Seg len M by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in dom M by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
for j be Nat st j in dom Line(M,i) holds (Line(M,i)).j >= 0 by A2,Lm2;
then Sum Line(M,i) >= 0 by RVSUM_1:84;
hence thesis by A4,Th20;
end;
A5: Sum e = SumAll M .= 1 by Def7;
len e = n by Th20;
hence thesis by A3,A5,Th54;
end;
cluster Column_Marginal M -> non empty ProbFinS;
coherence
proof
set e = ColSum M;
set m = width M;
A6: len e = width M by Def2;
A7: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) >= 0 by Def6;
A8: for i st i in dom e holds e.i >= 0
proof
let i;
assume i in dom e;
then
A9: i in Seg width M by A6,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then for j be Nat st j in dom Col(M,i) holds (Col(M,i)).j >= 0 by A7,Lm3;
then Sum Col(M,i) >= 0 by RVSUM_1:84;
hence thesis by A9,Def2;
end;
A10: len e = m by Def2;
Sum e = SumAll M by Th29
.= 1 by Def7;
hence thesis by A10,A8,Th54;
end;
end;
registration
let M be non empty-yielding Matrix of REAL;
cluster M@ -> non empty-yielding;
coherence
proof
A1: width M <> 0 by MATRIX_0:def 10;
then width (M@) = len M by MATRIX_0:54;
then
A2: width (M@) <> 0 by MATRIX_0:def 10;
len (M@) <> 0 by A1,MATRIX_0:54;
hence thesis by A2,MATRIX_0:def 10;
end;
end;
registration
let M be non empty-yielding Joint_Probability Matrix of REAL;
cluster M@ -> Joint_Probability;
coherence by Th56;
end;
theorem Th62:
for p being non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of REAL for P being
non empty-yielding Conditional_Probability Matrix of REAL st len p = len P
holds p * P is non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of REAL & len (p * P) = width P
proof
let p be non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of REAL;
set n = len p;
let P be non empty-yielding Conditional_Probability Matrix of REAL such that
A1: len p = len P;
A2: len(p * P) = width P by A1,MATRIXR1:62;
A3: for i st i in dom (p*P) holds (p*P).i >= 0
proof
let i such that
A4: i in dom(p*P);
i in Seg len (p*P) by A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A5: (p*P).i = p "*" Col(P,i) by A1,Th40
.= Sum(mlt(p,Col(P,i)));
A6: for i,j st [i,j] in Indices P holds P*(i,j) >=0 by Def6;
i in Seg width P by A2,A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A7: for j st j in dom Col(P,i) holds (Col(P,i)).j >=0 by A6,Lm3;
for i st i in dom p holds p.i >= 0 by Def5;
then
for k be Nat st k in dom mlt(p,Col(P,i)) holds (mlt(p,Col(P,i))).k >=
0 by A7,Th33;
hence thesis by A5,RVSUM_1:84;
end;
set m = width P;
set e = m |-> jj;
A8: len e = m by CARD_1:def 7;
A9: m > 0 by Th54;
then
A10: len(P@) = width P by MATRIX_0:54;
width(P@) = len P by A9,MATRIX_0:54;
then
A11: len(e*P@) = n by A1,A8,A10,MATRIXR1:62;
for k be Nat st k in dom(e*P@) holds (e*P@).k = 1
proof
let k be Nat;
assume k in dom(e*P@);
then
A12: k in Seg len(e*P@) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A13: k in dom P by A1,A11,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
thus (e*P@).k = Sum Col(P@,k) by A8,A10,A12,Th50
.= Sum Line(P,k) by A13,MATRIX_0:58
.= Sum (P.k) by A13,MATRIX_0:60
.= 1 by A13,Def9;
end;
then
A14: e*P@ = n |-> jj by A11,Th1;
Sum(p*P) = |((p*P),e)| by A2,Th32
.= |(p,e*P@)| by A1,A9,A8,Th49
.= Sum p by A14,Th32
.= 1 by Def5;
hence thesis by A2,A3,Def5,Th54;
end;
theorem
for P1, P2 being non empty-yielding Conditional_Probability Matrix of
REAL st width P1 = len P2 holds P1 * P2 is non empty-yielding
Conditional_Probability Matrix of REAL & len (P1 * P2) = len P1 & width (P1 *
P2) = width P2
proof
let P1, P2 be non empty-yielding Conditional_Probability Matrix of REAL such
that
A1: width P1 = len P2;
set n2 = width P2;
set m = len P2;
set n1 = len P1;
A2: len(P1 * P2) = n1 by A1,Th42;
A3: width(P1 * P2) = n2 by A1,Th42;
then reconsider P = P1 * P2 as Matrix of n1,n2,REAL by A2,MATRIX_0:51;
A4: for i st i in dom P holds Line(P,i) is non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of
REAL
proof
let i;
assume i in dom P;
then
A5: i in Seg len P by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in dom P1 by A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then reconsider
p = Line(P1,i) as non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of REAL by Th60;
len p = m by A1,MATRIX_0:def 7;
then p * P2 is non empty ProbFinS FinSequence of REAL by Th62;
hence thesis by A1,A5,Th42;
end;
n1 > 0 & n2 > 0 by Th54;
then P is non empty-yielding Matrix of REAL by A2,A3,MATRIX_0:def 10;
hence thesis by A1,A4,Th42,Th60;
end;