:: On the {K}uratowski Limit Operators I
:: by Adam Grabowski
::
:: Received August 12, 2003
:: Copyright (c) 2003-2017 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies NUMBERS, FUNCT_1, RELAT_1, SETFAM_1, TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1,
PROB_1, SUBSET_1, FUNCOP_1, CARD_3, ORDINAL2, NAT_1, ARYTM_3, CARD_1,
XXREAL_0, SEQ_2, KURATO_2;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, XCMPLX_0, ZFMISC_1,
XXREAL_0, REAL_1, NAT_1, SETFAM_1, MCART_1, DOMAIN_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1,
INT_1, FINSEQ_1, RELSET_1, FUNCT_2, FUNCOP_1, CARD_3, PROB_1, VALUED_0,
FUNCT_6;
constructors SETFAM_1, REAL_1, PROB_1, LIMFUNC1, FUNCT_6, FINSEQ_1, DOMAIN_1,
NAT_1, RELSET_1;
registrations XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, ORDINAL1, FUNCT_2, XREAL_0, NAT_1,
FUNCOP_1, RELSET_1;
requirements REAL, SUBSET, BOOLE, NUMERALS, ARITHM;
definitions XBOOLE_0, TARSKI;
equalities SUBSET_1;
theorems SETFAM_1, XBOOLE_1, NAT_1, FUNCT_2, XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_1, ZFMISC_1,
RELAT_1, FUNCT_6, PROB_1, MEASURE2, XXREAL_0, ORDINAL1, VALUED_0, TARSKI;
schemes FUNCT_2, NAT_1;
begin
theorem
for F being Function, i being set st i in dom F holds meet F c= F.i
proof
let F be Function, i be set;
assume
A1: i in dom F;
let x be object;
assume x in meet F;
hence thesis by A1,FUNCT_6:25,RELAT_1:38;
end;
theorem
for A, B, C, D being set st A meets B & C meets D
holds [: A, C :] meets [: B, D :]
proof
let A, B, C, D be set;
assume that
A1: A meets B and
A2: C meets D;
consider x being object such that
A3: x in A & x in B by A1,XBOOLE_0:3;
consider y being object such that
A4: y in C & y in D by A2,XBOOLE_0:3;
[x,y] in [: A, C :] & [x,y] in [: B, D :] by A3,A4,ZFMISC_1:87;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:3;
end;
registration
let X be set;
cluster -> non empty for SetSequence of X;
coherence;
end;
registration
let T be non empty set;
cluster non-empty for SetSequence of T;
existence
proof
set a = the Element of T;
reconsider A = {a} as Subset of T;
set X = NAT --> A;
reconsider X as SetSequence of T;
take X;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
definition
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X;
redefine func Union F -> Subset of X;
coherence
proof
Union F c= X;
hence thesis;
end;
redefine func meet F -> Subset of X;
coherence
proof
reconsider G = rng F as Subset-Family of X;
meet G c= X;
hence thesis by FUNCT_6:def 4;
end;
end;
begin :: Lower and Upper Limit of Sequences of Subsets
definition
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X;
func lim_inf F -> Subset of X means
:Def1:
ex f being SetSequence of X st it
= Union f & for n being Nat holds f.n = meet (F ^\ n);
existence
proof
deffunc F(Nat) = meet (F ^\ $1);
consider f being SetSequence of X such that
A1: for n being Element of NAT holds f.n = F(n) from FUNCT_2:sch 4;
take Union f, f;
thus Union f = Union f;
let n be Nat;
n in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let A1, A2 be Subset of X;
given f1 being SetSequence of X such that
A2: A1 = Union f1 and
A3: for n being Nat holds f1.n = meet (F ^\ n);
given f2 being SetSequence of X such that
A4: A2 = Union f2 and
A5: for n being Nat holds f2.n = meet (F ^\ n);
for n being Element of NAT holds f1.n = f2.n
proof
let n be Element of NAT;
f1.n = meet (F ^\ n) by A3
.= f2.n by A5;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by A2,A4,FUNCT_2:63;
end;
func lim_sup F -> Subset of X means
:Def2:
ex f being SetSequence of X st it
= meet f & for n being Nat holds f.n = Union (F ^\ n);
existence
proof
deffunc F(Nat) = Union (F ^\ $1);
consider f being SetSequence of X such that
A6: for n being Element of NAT holds f.n = F(n) from FUNCT_2:sch 4;
take meet f, f;
thus meet f = meet f;
let n be Nat;
n in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
hence thesis by A6;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let A1, A2 be Subset of X;
given f1 being SetSequence of X such that
A7: A1 = meet f1 and
A8: for n being Nat holds f1.n = Union (F ^\ n);
given f2 being SetSequence of X such that
A9: A2 = meet f2 and
A10: for n being Nat holds f2.n = Union (F ^\ n);
for n being Element of NAT holds f1.n = f2.n
proof
let n be Element of NAT;
f1.n = Union (F ^\ n) by A8
.= f2.n by A10;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by A7,A9,FUNCT_2:63;
end;
end;
theorem Th3:
for X being set, F being SetSequence of X, x being object
holds x in meet F iff for z being Nat holds x in F.z
proof
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X, x be object;
hereby
assume
A1: x in meet F;
let z be Nat;
z in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
then z in dom F by FUNCT_2:def 1;
hence x in F.z by A1,FUNCT_6:25;
end;
assume for z being Nat holds x in F.z;
then for y being object st y in dom F holds x in F.y;
hence thesis by FUNCT_6:25;
end;
theorem Th4:
for X being set, F being SetSequence of X, x being object holds x in
lim_inf F iff ex n being Nat st for k being Nat holds x
in F.(n+k)
proof
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X, x be object;
consider f being SetSequence of X such that
A1: lim_inf F = Union f and
A2: for n being Nat holds f.n = meet (F ^\ n) by Def1;
hereby
consider f being SetSequence of X such that
A3: lim_inf F = Union f and
A4: for n being Nat holds f.n = meet (F ^\ n) by Def1;
assume x in lim_inf F;
then consider n being Nat such that
A5: x in f.n by A3,PROB_1:12;
set G = F ^\ n;
reconsider n as Nat;
take n;
let k be Nat;
A6: G.k = F.(n + k) by NAT_1:def 3;
x in meet (F ^\ n) by A4,A5;
hence x in F.(n+k) by A6,Th3;
end;
given n being Nat such that
A7: for k being Nat holds x in F.(n+k);
set G = F ^\ n;
for z being Nat holds x in G.z
proof
let z be Nat;
G.z = F.(n + z) by NAT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A7;
end;
then x in meet G by Th3;
then x in f.n by A2;
hence thesis by A1,PROB_1:12;
end;
theorem Th5:
for X being set, F being SetSequence of X, x being object holds x in
lim_sup F iff for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in F.(n
+k)
proof
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X, x be object;
consider f being SetSequence of X such that
A1: lim_sup F = meet f and
A2: for n being Nat holds f.n = Union (F ^\ n) by Def2;
hereby
assume
A3: x in lim_sup F;
let n be Nat;
set G = F ^\ n;
consider f being SetSequence of X such that
A4: lim_sup F = meet f and
A5: for n being Nat holds f.n = Union (F ^\ n) by Def2;
f.n = Union G by A5;
then x in Union G by A3,A4,Th3;
then consider k being Nat such that
A6: x in G.k by PROB_1:12;
reconsider k as Nat;
take k;
thus x in F.(n+k) by A6,NAT_1:def 3;
end;
assume
A7: for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in F.(n+k);
for z being Nat holds x in f.z
proof
let z be Nat;
set G = F ^\ z;
consider k being Nat such that
A8: x in F.(z+k) by A7;
f.z = Union G & G.k = F.(z + k) by A2,NAT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A8,PROB_1:12;
end;
hence thesis by A1,Th3;
end;
theorem
for X being set, F being SetSequence of X holds lim_inf F c= lim_sup F
proof
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X;
let x be object;
assume x in lim_inf F;
then consider n be Nat such that
A1: for k being Nat holds x in F.(n+k) by Th4;
now
let k be Nat;
x in F.(n+k) by A1;
hence ex n being Nat st x in F.(k+n);
end;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
theorem Th7:
for X being set, F being SetSequence of X holds meet F c= lim_inf F
proof
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X;
let x be object;
assume x in meet F;
then for k being Nat holds x in F.(0 qua Nat+k) by Th3;
hence thesis by Th4;
end;
theorem Th8:
for X being set, F being SetSequence of X holds lim_sup F c= Union F
proof
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X;
let x be object;
assume x in lim_sup F;
then ex k being Nat st x in F.(0 qua Nat+k) by Th5;
hence thesis by PROB_1:12;
end;
theorem
for X being set, F being SetSequence of X
holds lim_inf F = (lim_sup Complement F)`
proof
let X be set, F be SetSequence of X;
set G = Complement F;
thus lim_inf F c= (lim_sup Complement F)`
proof
let x be object;
assume
A1: x in lim_inf F;
then consider n being Nat such that
A2: for k being Nat holds x in F.(n+k) by Th4;
for k being Nat holds not x in G.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
reconsider nk = n+k as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
A3: G.(n+k) = (F.(nk))` by PROB_1:def 2;
assume x in G.(n+k);
then not x in F.(n+k) by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
then not x in lim_sup G by Th5;
hence thesis by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
end;
thus (lim_sup Complement F)` c= lim_inf F
proof
let x be object;
assume
A4: x in (lim_sup Complement F)`;
then not x in lim_sup Complement F by XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then consider n being Nat such that
A5: for k being Nat holds not x in G.(n+k) by Th5;
for k being Nat holds x in F.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
reconsider nk = n+k as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
assume not x in F.(n+k);
then x in (F.(nk))` by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then x in G.(n+k) by PROB_1:def 2;
hence thesis by A5;
end;
hence thesis by Th4;
end;
end;
theorem
for X being set, A, B, C being SetSequence of X
st for n being Nat holds C.n = A.n /\ B.n
holds lim_inf C = lim_inf A /\ lim_inf B
proof
let X be set, A, B, C be SetSequence of X;
assume
A1: for n being Nat holds C.n = A.n /\ B.n;
thus lim_inf C c= lim_inf A /\ lim_inf B
proof
let x be object;
assume x in lim_inf C;
then consider n being Nat such that
A2: for k being Nat holds x in C.(n+k) by Th4;
for k being Nat holds x in B.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
C.(n+k) = A.(n+k) /\ B.(n+k) & x in C.(n+k) by A1,A2;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
then
A3: x in lim_inf B by Th4;
for k being Nat holds x in A.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
C.(n+k) = A.(n+k) /\ B.(n+k) & x in C.(n+k) by A1,A2;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
then x in lim_inf A by Th4;
hence thesis by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
thus lim_inf A /\ lim_inf B c= lim_inf C
proof
let x be object;
assume
A4: x in lim_inf A /\ lim_inf B;
then x in lim_inf A by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider n1 being Nat such that
A5: for k being Nat holds x in A.(n1+k) by Th4;
x in lim_inf B by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider n2 being Nat such that
A6: for k being Nat holds x in B.(n2+k) by Th4;
set n = max (n1, n2);
A0: n is Nat by TARSKI:1;
A7: for k being Nat holds x in B.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
consider g being Nat such that
A8: n = n2 + g by NAT_1:10,XXREAL_0:25;
reconsider g as Nat;
x in B.(n2+(g+k)) by A6;
hence thesis by A8;
end;
A9: for k being Nat holds x in A.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
consider g being Nat such that
A10: n = n1 + g by NAT_1:10,XXREAL_0:25;
reconsider g as Nat;
x in A.(n1+(g+k)) by A5;
hence thesis by A10;
end;
for k being Nat holds x in C.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
x in A.(n+k) & x in B.(n+k) by A9,A7;
then x in A.(n+k) /\ B.(n+k) by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by A0,Th4;
end;
end;
theorem
for X being set, A, B, C being SetSequence of X
st for n being Nat holds C.n = A.n \/ B.n
holds lim_sup C = lim_sup A \/ lim_sup B
proof
let X be set, A, B, C be SetSequence of X;
assume
A1: for n being Nat holds C.n = A.n \/ B.n;
thus lim_sup C c= lim_sup A \/ lim_sup B
proof
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in lim_sup C;
(for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in A.(n+k))
or for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in B.(n+k)
proof
given n1 being Nat such that
A3: for k being Nat holds not x in A.(n1+k);
given n2 being Nat such that
A4: for k being Nat holds not x in B.(n2+k);
set n = max (n1, n2);
consider g being Nat such that
A5: n = n1 + g by NAT_1:10,XXREAL_0:25;
consider h being Nat such that
A6: n = n2 + h by NAT_1:10,XXREAL_0:25;
reconsider n as Nat by TARSKI:1;
consider k being Nat such that
A7: x in C.(n+k) by A2,Th5;
A8: x in A.(n+k) \/ B.(n+k) by A1,A7;
per cases by A8,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
x in A.(n+k);
then x in A.(n1+(g+k)) by A5;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
suppose
x in B.(n+k);
then x in B.(n2+(h+k)) by A6;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
end;
then x in lim_sup A or x in lim_sup B by Th5;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
thus lim_sup A \/ lim_sup B c= lim_sup C
proof
let x be object;
assume
A9: x in lim_sup A \/ lim_sup B;
per cases by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
A10: x in lim_sup A;
for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in C.(n+k )
proof
let n be Nat;
consider k being Nat such that
A11: x in A.(n+k) by A10,Th5;
take k;
x in A.(n+k) \/ B.(n+k) by A11,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
suppose
A12: x in lim_sup B;
for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in C.(n+k )
proof
let n be Nat;
consider k being Nat such that
A13: x in B.(n+k) by A12,Th5;
take k;
x in A.(n+k) \/ B.(n+k) by A13,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
end;
end;
theorem
for X being set, A, B, C being SetSequence of X
st for n being Nat holds C.n = A.n \/ B.n
holds lim_inf A \/ lim_inf B c= lim_inf C
proof
let X be set, A, B, C be SetSequence of X;
assume
A1: for n being Nat holds C.n = A.n \/ B.n;
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in lim_inf A \/ lim_inf B;
per cases by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
x in lim_inf A;
then consider n being Nat such that
A3: for k being Nat holds x in A.(n+k) by Th4;
for k being Nat holds x in C.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
x in A.(n+k) by A3;
then x in A.(n+k) \/ B.(n+k) by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by Th4;
end;
suppose
x in lim_inf B;
then consider n being Nat such that
A4: for k being Nat holds x in B.(n+k) by Th4;
for k being Nat holds x in C.(n+k)
proof
let k be Nat;
x in B.(n+k) by A4;
then x in A.(n+k) \/ B.(n+k) by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by Th4;
end;
end;
theorem
for X being set, A, B, C being SetSequence of X st (for n being
Nat holds C.n = A.n /\ B.n) holds lim_sup C c= lim_sup A /\ lim_sup
B
proof
let X be set, A, B, C be SetSequence of X;
assume
A1: for n being Nat holds C.n = A.n /\ B.n;
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in lim_sup C;
for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in B.(n+k)
proof
let n be Nat;
consider k being Nat such that
A3: x in C.(n+k) by A2,Th5;
take k;
x in A.(n+k) /\ B.(n+k) by A1,A3;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
then
A4: x in lim_sup B by Th5;
for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in A.(n+k)
proof
let n be Nat;
consider k being Nat such that
A5: x in C.(n+k) by A2,Th5;
take k;
x in A.(n+k) /\ B.(n+k) by A1,A5;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
then x in lim_sup A by Th5;
hence thesis by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
theorem Th14:
for X being set, A being SetSequence of X, B being Subset of X
st (for n being Nat holds A.n = B) holds lim_sup A = B
proof
let X be set, A be SetSequence of X, B be Subset of X;
assume
A1: for n being Nat holds A.n = B;
thus lim_sup A c= B
proof
let x be object;
assume x in lim_sup A;
then ex k being Nat st x in A.(0 qua Nat+k) by Th5;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
thus B c= lim_sup A
proof
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in B;
for m being Nat ex k being Nat st x in A.(m+k)
proof
let m be Nat;
take 0;
thus thesis by A1,A2;
end;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
end;
theorem Th15:
for X being set, A being SetSequence of X, B being Subset of X
st (for n being Nat holds A.n = B) holds lim_inf A = B
proof
let X be set, A be SetSequence of X, B be Subset of X;
assume
A1: for n being Nat holds A.n = B;
thus lim_inf A c= B
proof
let x be object;
assume x in lim_inf A;
then consider m being Nat such that
A2: for k being Nat holds x in A.(m+k) by Th4;
x in A.(m+(0 qua Nat)) by A2;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
thus B c= lim_inf A
proof
let x be object;
assume
A3: x in B;
ex m being Nat st for k being Nat holds x in A.( m+k)
proof
take 0;
let k be Nat;
thus thesis by A1,A3;
end;
hence thesis by Th4;
end;
end;
theorem
for X being set, A, B being SetSequence of X, C being Subset of X st (
for n being Nat holds B.n = C \+\ A.n) holds C \+\ lim_inf A c=
lim_sup B
proof
let X be set, A, B be SetSequence of X, C be Subset of X;
assume
A1: for n being Nat holds B.n = C \+\ A.n;
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in C \+\ lim_inf A;
per cases by A2,XBOOLE_0:1;
suppose
A3: x in C & not x in lim_inf A;
for n being Nat ex k being Nat st x in B.(n+k)
proof
let n be Nat;
consider k being Nat such that
A4: not x in A.(n+k) by A3,Th4;
take k;
x in C \+\ A.(n+k) by A3,A4,XBOOLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
suppose
A5: not x in C & x in lim_inf A;
then consider n being Nat such that
A6: for k being Nat holds x in A.(n+k) by Th4;
for m being Nat ex k being Nat st x in B.(m+k)
proof
let m be Nat;
take k = n;
x in A.(m+k) by A6;
then x in C \+\ A.(m+k) by A5,XBOOLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
end;
theorem
for X being set, A, B being SetSequence of X, C being Subset of X st (
for n being Nat holds B.n = C \+\ A.n) holds C \+\ lim_sup A c=
lim_sup B
proof
let X be set, A, B be SetSequence of X, C be Subset of X;
assume
A1: for n being Nat holds B.n = C \+\ A.n;
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in C \+\ lim_sup A;
per cases by A2,XBOOLE_0:1;
suppose
A3: x in C & not x in lim_sup A;
then consider n being Nat such that
A4: for k being Nat holds not x in A.(n+k) by Th5;
for m being Nat ex k being Nat st x in B.(m+k)
proof
let m be Nat;
take k = n;
not x in A.(m+k) by A4;
then x in C \+\ A.(m+k) by A3,XBOOLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
suppose
A5: not x in C & x in lim_sup A;
for m being Nat ex k being Nat st x in B.(m+k)
proof
let m be Nat;
consider k being Nat such that
A6: x in A.(m+k) by A5,Th5;
take k;
x in C \+\ A.(m+k) by A5,A6,XBOOLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
end;
begin :: Ascending and Descending Families of Subsets
theorem Th18:
for f being Function st (for i being Nat holds f.(i+1
) c= f.i) for i, j being Nat st i <= j holds f.j c= f.i
proof
let f be Function;
assume
A1: for i being Nat holds f.(i+1) c= f.i;
let i, j be Nat;
defpred P[Nat] means i + $1 <= j implies f.(i + $1) c= f.i;
A2: now
let k be Nat;
assume
A3: P[k];
A4: i + k + 1 = i + (k + 1);
then f.(i + (k + 1)) c= f.(i + k) by A1;
hence P[k+1] by A4,A3,NAT_1:13,XBOOLE_1:1;
end;
A5: P[0];
A6: for k being Nat holds P[k] from NAT_1:sch 2(A5,A2);
assume i <= j;
then consider k be Nat such that
A7: i + k = j by NAT_1:10;
thus thesis by A6,A7;
end;
definition
let T be set, S be SetSequence of T;
redefine attr S is non-ascending means
for i being Nat holds S.(i+1) c= S.i;
compatibility
proof
thus S is non-ascending implies for i being Nat holds S.(i+1)
c= S.i
proof
assume
A1: S is non-ascending;
let i be Nat;
i <=i+1 by NAT_1:13;
hence thesis by A1,PROB_1:def 4;
end;
assume for i being Nat holds S.(i+1) c= S.i;
then
A2: for i, j being Nat st i <= j holds S.j c= S.i by Th18;
for i, j being Nat st i <= j holds S.j c= S.i
by A2;
hence thesis by PROB_1:def 4;
end;
redefine attr S is non-descending means
for i being Nat holds S.i c= S.(i+1);
compatibility
proof
thus S is non-descending implies
for i being Nat holds S.i c= S.(i+1)
proof
assume
A3: S is non-descending;
let i be Nat;
i <=i+1 by NAT_1:13;
hence thesis by A3,PROB_1:def 5;
end;
assume for i being Nat holds S.i c= S.(i+1);
then
A4: for i, j being Nat st i <= j holds S.i c= S.j by MEASURE2:18;
for i, j being Nat st i <= j holds S.i c= S.j
by A4;
hence thesis by PROB_1:def 5;
end;
end;
theorem Th19:
for T being set, F being SetSequence of T, x being object st F is
non-ascending & ex k being Nat st for n being Nat st n >
k holds x in F.n holds x in meet F
proof
let T be set, F be SetSequence of T, x be object;
assume
A1: F is non-ascending;
given k being Nat such that
A2: for n being Nat st n > k holds x in F.n;
k + 1 > k by NAT_1:13;
then
A3: x in F.(k + 1) by A2;
assume not x in meet F;
then not x in meet rng F by FUNCT_6:def 4;
then consider Y being set such that
A4: Y in rng F and
A5: not x in Y by SETFAM_1:def 1;
consider y being object such that
A6: y in dom F and
A7: Y = F.y by A4,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider y as Nat by A6;
per cases;
suppose
y > k;
hence thesis by A2,A5,A7;
end;
suppose
y <= k;
then F.k c= F.y by A1,PROB_1:def 4;
then
A8: not x in F.k by A5,A7;
F.(k + 1) c= F.k by A1;
hence thesis by A3,A8;
end;
end;
theorem
for T being set, F being SetSequence of T st F is non-ascending holds
lim_inf F = meet F
proof
let T be set, F be SetSequence of T;
assume
A1: F is non-ascending;
thus lim_inf F c= meet F
proof
let x be object;
assume x in lim_inf F;
then consider n being Nat such that
A2: for k being Nat holds x in F.(n+k) by Th4;
for k being Nat st k > n holds x in F.k
proof
let k be Nat;
assume k > n;
then consider h being Nat such that
A3: k = n + h by NAT_1:10;
thus thesis by A2,A3;
end;
hence thesis by A1,Th19;
end;
thus thesis by Th7;
end;
theorem
for T being set, F being SetSequence of T st F is non-descending holds
lim_sup F = Union F
proof
let T be set, F be SetSequence of T;
assume
A1: F is non-descending;
thus lim_sup F c= Union F by Th8;
let x be object;
assume x in Union F;
then consider n being Nat such that
A2: x in F.n by PROB_1:12;
assume not x in lim_sup F;
then consider m being Nat such that
A3: for k being Nat holds not x in F.(m+k) by Th5;
A4: not x in F.(m+(0 qua Nat)) by A3;
per cases;
suppose
n <= m;
then F.n c= F.m by A1,PROB_1:def 5;
hence thesis by A2,A4;
end;
suppose
n > m;
then consider h being Nat such that
A5: n = m + h by NAT_1:10;
thus thesis by A2,A3,A5;
end;
end;
begin :: Constant and Convergent Sequences
definition
let T be set, S be SetSequence of T;
attr S is convergent means
:Def5:
lim_sup S = lim_inf S;
end;
theorem
for T being set, S being SetSequence of T st S is constant holds
the_value_of S is Subset of T
proof
let T be set, S be SetSequence of T;
assume S is constant;
then consider x being set such that
A1: x in dom S and
A2: the_value_of S = S.x by FUNCT_1:def 12;
reconsider n = x as Element of NAT by A1;
S.n in bool T;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
registration
let T be set;
cluster constant -> convergent non-descending non-ascending for
SetSequence of T;
coherence
proof
let S be SetSequence of T;
assume S is constant;
then consider A being Subset of T such that
A1: for n being Nat holds S.n = A by VALUED_0:def 18;
A2: now
let n be Nat;
S.n = A by A1;
hence S.(n+1) c= S.n by A1;
end;
A3: now
let n be Nat;
S.n = A by A1;
hence S.n c= S.(n+1) by A1;
end;
lim_sup S = A & lim_inf S = A by A1,Th14,Th15;
hence thesis by A3,A2;
end;
end;
registration
let T be set;
cluster constant non empty for SetSequence of T;
existence
proof
reconsider E = NAT --> {}T as SetSequence of T;
E is constant;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
notation
let T be set, S be convergent SetSequence of T;
synonym Lim_K S for lim_sup S;
end;
theorem
for X being set, F being convergent SetSequence of X, x being set
holds x in Lim_K F iff ex n being Nat st for k being Nat
holds x in F.(n+k)
proof
let X be set, F be convergent SetSequence of X, x be set;
Lim_K F = lim_inf F by Def5;
hence thesis by Th4;
end;